SO2 Concentration and the Occurrence of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children Under Five

Puji Amrih Lestari, Budi Haryanto


Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, with 10.7 million inhabitants with poor air quality as of 2020. Higher levels of pollution often come with an increase in the number of health risks and pneumonia cases. This study aimed to determine the association between SO2 concentration and the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under five. An ecological time series design was implemented during the study by utilizing secondary data of SO2 concentrations and ARI from the Indonesian Agency for Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysics, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Environmental, and Health Office. Statistical correlation tests were performed to analyze the association between SO2 concentration and ARI prevalence in five municipalities cities in Jakarta from 2018-2021 based on the rainy and dry seasons. The average concentration of SO2 was 18.06–20.89 μg/m3. The SO2 concentration and the occurrence of ARI in children under five in Jakarta from 2018 to 2021 showed a weak relationship (r = 0.24). It seems that children under five in Jakarta spent their time indoors rather than outdoors; therefore, they were exposed to fewer transportation emissions.


acute respiratory infection; air pollution; children under five; SO2 concentration

Full Text:



  1. Najmah. Epidemiologi penyakit menular. Jakarta Timur: CV. Trans Info Media; 2016.

  2. Hill K, Zimmerman L, Jamison DT. Mortality risks in children aged 5-14 years in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic empirical analysis. Lancet Glob Heal. 2015; 3 (10): e609–16.

  3. World Health Organization & United Nations Children’s Fund (‎‎UNICEF)‎‎. Pneumonia: the forgotten killer of children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.

  4. National Population and Family Planning Board, Statistics Indonesia, Ministry of Health, ICF. Indonesia demographic and health survey 2017. Jakarta: National Population and Family Planning Board, Statistics Indonesia, Ministry of Health, ICF; 2018.

  5. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Profil kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2019. Jakarta: Kemeteriann Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2020.

  6. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Profil kesehatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta tahun 2019. Jakarta: Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta; 2019.

  7. United Nations Children’s Fund. Clear the air for children: the impact of air pollution on children. UNICEF; 2016.

  8. World Health Organization. Pencegahan dan pengendalian infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA) yang cenderung menjadi epidemi dan pandemi di fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan. WHO; 2007.

  9. Rendana M, Komariah LN. The relationship between air pollutants and COVID-19 cases and its implications for air quality in Jakarta, Indonesia. J Pengelolaan Sumberd Alam dan Lingkung (Journal Nat Resour Environ Manag). 2021; 11 (1): 93–100.

  10. Slama A, Śliwczyński A, Woźnica-Pyzikiewicz J, Zdrolik M, Wiśnicki B, Kubajek J, et al. The short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory disease hospitalizations in 5 cities in Poland: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2020; 27 (19): 24582–90.

  11. Xu Z, Etzel RA, Su H, Huang C, Guo Y, Tong S. Impact of ambient temperature on children’s health: a systematic review. Environ Res. 2012; 117: 120–31.

  12. Deng SZ, Jalaludin BB, Antó JM, Hess JJ, Huang CR. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: a call to action for health professionals. Chin Med J. 2020; 133 (13): 1552–60.

  13. Ariffin. Metode klasifikasi iklim di Indonesia. UB Press; 2019.

  14. Xia X, Zhang A, Liang S, Qi Q, Jiang L, Ye Y. The association between air pollution and population health risk for respiratory infection: a case study of Shenzhen, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017; 14 (9).

  15. Irawan A, Sutomo AH, Sukandarrumidi. Indeks standar pencemar udara, faktor meteorologi dan kejadian ISPA di Pekanbaru. J Community Med Public Heal. 2017; 33 (1): 15–32.

  16. Tam WWS, Wong TW, Ng L, Wong SYS, Kung KKL, Wong AHS. Association between air pollution and general outpatient clinic consultations for upper respiratory tract infections in Hong Kong. PLoS One. 2014; 9 (1): 1–6.

  17. Juginović A, Vuković M, Aranza I, Biloš V. Health impacts of air pollution exposure from 1990 to 2019 in 43 European countries. Sci Rep. 2021; 11 (1): 1–15.

  18. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia nomor 1077/Menkes/Per/V/2011 tentang pedoman penyehatan udara dalam ruang rumah.Kemenkes RI; 2011.

  19. Roy P, Sardar A. SO2 emission control and finding a way out to produce sulphuric acid from industrial SO2 emission. J Chem Eng Process Technol. 2015; 06 (02).

  20. Presiden Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 22 tahun 2021 tentang penyelenggaraan perlindungan dan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup. Presiden RI; 2021.

  21. Putra AF, Sulityorini L. Kadar SO2 dan kejadian ISPA di Kota Surabaya menurut tingkat pencemaran yang berasal dari kendaraan bermotor. IPTEK J Proc Ser. 2017; 3 (5).

  22. Zhou M, He G, Liu Y, Yin P, Li Y, Kan H, et al. The associations between ambient air pollution and adult respiratory mortality in 32 major Chinese cities, 2006-2010. Environ Res. 2015; 137: 278–86.

  23. Khanjani N, Hashemi SY. Air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in Kerman, Iran; from 2006 to 2011. ISEE Conf Abstr. 2014; 2014 (1): 2533.



  • There are currently no refbacks.