Pneumonia pada Anak Balita di Indonesia

Athena Anwar, Ika Dharmayanti

Abstract


Pneumonia adalah penyakit infeksi yang merupakan penyebab utama kematian pada balita di dunia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) tahun 2007 melaporkan bahwa kematian balita di Indonesia mencapai 15,5%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor determinan terjadinya pneumonia pada balita di Indonesia. Desain penelitian ini adalah potong lintang dengan menggunakan data Riskesdas 2013. Kriteria sampel adalah balita (0 – 59 bulan) yang menjadi responden Riskesdas 2013. Variabel dependen adalah kejadian pneumonia balita, sedangkan variabel independennya adalah karakteristik individu, lingkungan fisik rumah, perilaku penggunaan bahan bakar, dan kebiasaan merokok. Penetapan kejadian pneumonia berdasarkan hasil wawancara, dengan batasan operasional diagnosis pneumonia oleh tenaga kesehatan dan/atau dengan gejala pneumonia dalam periode 12 bulan terakhir. Jumlah sampel yang memenuhi kriteria adalah 82.666 orang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko yang paling berperan dalam kejadian pneumonia balita adalah jenis kelamin balita (OR = 1,10; 95% CI = 1,02 - 1,18), tipe tempat tinggal (OR = 1,15; 95% CI = 1,06 – 1,25), pendidikan ibu (OR = 1,20; 95% CI = 1,11 – 1,30), tingkat ekonomi keluarga/kuintil indeks kepemilikan (OR = 1,19; 95% CI = 1,10 – 1,30), pemisahan dapur dari ruangan lain (OR = 1,19; 95% CI = 1,05 – 1,34), keberadan/kebiasaan membuka jendela kamar (OR = 1,17; 95% CI = 1,04 – 1,31), dan ventilasi kamar yang cukup (OR = 1,16; 95% CI = 1,04 – 1,30). Disimpulkan bahwa faktor sosial, demografi, ekonomi dan kondisi lingkungan fisik rumah secara bersama-sama berperan terhadap kejadian pneumonia pada balita di Indonesia.

Pneumonia is an infectious disease which is a major cause of mortality in children under five years of age in the world. National Basic Health Research 2007 reported that infant mortality in Indonesia has reached 15.5%. The objective of the study was to identify the determinant factors related to the incidence of pneumonia in children under five years of age in Indonesia. The research design was cross sectional, using National Basic Health Research 2013 data. Sample criteria were children under five years of age (0 – 59 months). The dependent variable was the incidence of pneumonia among children under five years of age, while the independent variables were individual characteristics, physical environment of house, types of fuel used, and smoking habit. There were 82,666 samples that fulfilled the study criteria. The result showed that determinant factors contributing to the incidence of pneumonia in children were sex (OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.02 – 1.18), residence (urban/rural) (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1,06 – 1,25), maternal education (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.11 – 1.30), household poverty index quintile (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.10 – 1.30) , kitchen separation (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.05 – 1.34), window availability in bedroom (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.31), and bedroom ventilation (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.30). This study concluded that social factors, demographic, economic levels and the physical environment of house simultaneously contributed to the incidence of pneumonia in children under five of age. 


Keywords


balita; kondisi lingkungan fisik rumah; pneumonia; children under five years of age; physical environment of house

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v8i8.405

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