e-ISSN 2598-3849       print ISSN 2527-8878

Vol 8, No 1 (2023)


Esty Asriyana Suryana, Miftahul Azis


Stunting cases continue to increase, along with the high risk of undernutrition, the increasing prevalence of malnutrition, and decreasing productivity. If this condition is not handled correctly, it can affect Indonesia's development performance, inequality, and poverty. Stunting can hinder economic growth and labor productivity, affecting 11% of GDP (gross domestic product) and reducing the income of adult workers by up to 20%. Based on this, it is necessary to make prevention and control efforts in nutrition intervention activities an economic investment. Therefore, this study estimates the economic potential lost due to stunting in children under five. This descriptive study is based on processing secondary data from various related agencies. We employed Konig's formula and correction factors from Horton's study. The results of this study show that the incidence of stunting in children under five in Indonesia in 2021 was 24.4%. Nationally, Indonesia has the potential for economic loss due to stunting in toddlers, which ranges from IDR 15,062 to IDR 67,780 billion. These are equivalent to a range of 0.89-3.99% of the total GDP in 2021 (IDR 16,970.8 trillion).


economic loss; human development index; stunting; toddler; nutrition


Alderman H., Hoddinot J., & Kinsey B. (2007) Long Term Consequences of Early Childhood Malnutrition, Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 450–474, https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpl008

Allen, K.E & Marotz, L.R. (2010). Developmental Profiles: Pre-Birth Through Twelve. Clifton Park: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Amirullah A., Putra A.T.A., Kahar A.A.D.A. (2020). Deskripsi Status Gizi Anak Usia 3 Sampai 5 Tahun Pada Masa Covid 19. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, Vol. 1(1): 16-27

Aries, M., & Martianto, D. (2007). Estimasi Kerugian Ekonomi Akibat Status Gizi Buruk Dan Biaya Penanggulangannya Pada Balita Di Berbagai Provinsi Di Indonesia. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 1(2), 26. https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2006.1.2.26-33

Bagriansky, J. (2010). The Economic Consequences of Malnutrition in Albania. In United Nations and MDG Achievement Fund (1st ed.). Media Print Press.

Bagriansky, J., Champa, N., Pak, K., Whitney, S., & Laillou, A. (2014). The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia are more than 400 million US dollars lost annually. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23(4), 524–531. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.08

Bappenas. Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional. (2022). Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional RI. In Laporan Pelaksanaan Pencapaian TPB/SDGS Tahun 2021

Budiastutik I. & Rahfiludin M.Z., (2019). Faktor Risiko Stunting pada anak di Negara Berkembang . Amerta Nutrition, 3(3), 122–129. https://doi.org/10.2473/amnt.v3i3.2019.122-129

de Onis, M., Blössner, M., & Borghi, E. (2012). Prevalence and trends of stunting among preschool children, 1990-2020. Public Health Nutrition, 15(1), 142–148. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001315

de Onis, M., & Branca, F. (2016). Childhood stunting: A global perspective. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 12, 12–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12231

Ethiopian Public Health and Nutrition Institute. (2013). The Cost of Hunger in Africa Implications for Growth and Transformation of Ethiopia. Minister of Health Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Gao, W., & Smyth, R. (2010). Job Satisfaction and Relative Income in Economic Transition: Status or signal? The case of urban China. China Economic Review, 21(3), 442 - 455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2010.04.002

Hayati A. W., Hardinsyah, Jalal F., Madanijah S., & Briawan D. 2012. Pola Konsumsi Pangan dan Asupan Energi dan Zat Gizi Anak Stunting dan Tidak Stunting 0—23 Bulan. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan, Juli 2012, 7(2): 73—80.

Hayes A. & Setyonaluri D. 2015. Taking Advantage of The Demographic Dividend in Indonesia: A Brief Introduction to Theory and Practice. UNFPA Indonesia.

Hoddinott, J., Alderman, H., Behrman, J. R., Haddad, L., & Horton, S. (2013). The economic rationale for investing in stunting reduction. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 9(S2), pp. 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12080

Horton, S. (1999). Opportunities for Investment in Nutrition in Low-income Asia. Asian Development Review, 17(1), 246–273.

Horton, S., Alderman, H., & Rivera, J. (2008). Copenhagen Consensus 2008 malnutrition and hunger Challenge paper. In Copenhagen Consensus Center. http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/sites/default/files/CP_Malnutrition_and_Hunger_-_Horton.pdf

Horton, S., & Steckel, R. H. (2014). Malnutrition: Global Economic Losses Attributable to Malnutrition 1900–2000 and Projections to 2050. In How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World? (pp. 247–272). https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139225793.010

Judge, T. A., & Cable, D. M. (2004). The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 428–441. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.428.

Keats, E. C., Imdad, A., Das, J. K., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2018). Efficacy and effectiveness of micronutrient supplementation and fortification interventions on the health and nutritional status of children under‐five in low and middle‐income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/cl2.196

Kemenkes RI (Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia). (2007). Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor : 747 / Menkes / SK / VI / 2007. In Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor : 747/Menkes/ SK/VI/2007 (pp. 1–32).

Kemenkes RI (Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2021). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. In Laporan Nasional Riset Kesehatan Dasar (p. 384).

Kemenkes RI (Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2022). Buku Saku Hasil Survei Status Gii Indonesia (SSGI) Tahun 2022.

Kementerian PPN/Bappenas. (2019). Pembangunan Gizi di Indonesia. In Kementerian PPN/Bappenas. https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/1515/9339/2047/FA_Preview_HSR_Book04.pdf

Kudrna G, Le T, Piggott J. Macro-Demographics and Ageing in Emerging Asia: the Case of Indonesia. J Popul Ageing. 2022;15(1):7-38. doi: 10.1007/s12062-022-09358-6. Epub 2022 Apr 4. PMID: 35399208; PMCID: PMC8977557.

Kustanto, A. (2021). The Prevalence of Stunting, Poverty, and Economic Growth in Indonesia: A Panel Data Dynamic Causality Analysis. Journal of Developing Economies, 6(2), 150. https://doi.org/10.20473/jde.v6i2.22358

Kusumawardhani H.D., & Ashar H. (2022). Food Consumption Patterns for Children Under Two Years (Toddler) in Areas with High Stunting Prevalence. OP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1024012071. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/1024/1/012071

Kusumawardhani, N., & Martianto, D. (2011). Kaitan Antara Prevalensi Gizi Buruk Dengan Pdrb Per Kapita Dan Tingkat Kemiskinan Serta Estimasi Kerugian Ekonomi Akibat Gizi Buruk Pada Balita Di Berbagai Kabupaten / Kota Di Pulau Jawa Dan Bali. Journal of Nutrition and Food, 6(1), 100–108.

Laksono A. D., Wulandari R.D., Amaliah N., Wisnuwardani R.W., (2022). Stunting among children under two years in Indonesia: Does maternal education matter? PLoS ONE 17(7) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271509

Mangalik, G., Martianto, D., & Sukandar, D. (2016). Estimasi Potensi Kerugian Ekonomi Dan Biaya Penanggulangan Akibat Anemia di Indonesia. Estimasi Potensi Kerugian Ekonomi Dan Biaya Penanggulangan Akibat Anemia di Indonesia, 11(3), 237–246. https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2016.11.3.%p

Mann, J., & Truswell, S. (2002). Essentials of Human Nutrition. Oxford University Press.

Mauludyani A.V.R, Suryana E. A., Ariani M. (2021). Factors associated with undernutrition and improvement in Indonesia. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 892 (2021) 012108. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/892/1/012108

Morris, S. S., Cogill, B., & Uauy, R. (2008). Effective international action against undernutrition: Why has it proven so difficult, and what can be done to accelerate progress? The Lancet, 371(9612), 608–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61695-X

Perry, N. E. (1998). Young children's self-regulated learning and contexts that support it. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 715–729. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.90.4.715

Renyoet, B. S., Martianto, D., & Iskandar, D. (2017). Estimasi Potensi Kerugian Ekonomi Pada Balita Obesitas Yang Diprediksi Mengalami Obesitas Saat Dewasa di Indonesia. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 13(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.30597/mkmi.v13i1.1587

Renyoet, B. S., & Nai, H. M. E. (2019). Estimasi potensi kerugian ekonomi akibat wasting pada balita di indonesia. Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), 7(2), 127–132. https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.7.2.127-132

Reyes, H., Pérez-Cuevas, R., Sandoval, A. et al. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study. BMC Public Health 4, 57 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-4-57

Riskesdas. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. 2018. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2018. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Kemenkes RI

Saputri, R. A. (2019). Upaya Pemerintah Daerah Dalam Penanggulangan Stunting Di Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung. Jurnal Dinamika Pemerintahan, 2(2), 152–168. https://doi.org/10.36341/jdp.v2i2.947

Sari M., Pee, S. de, Bloem, M. W., Sun, K., Thorne-lyman, A. L., Moench-pfanner, R., Akhter, N., Kraemer, K., & Semba, R. D. (2010). Higher Household Expenditure on Animal-Source and Nongrain Foods Lowers the Risk of Stunting among Children 0 – 59 Months Old in Indonesia : Implications of Rising Food Prices 1 – 3. The Journal of Nutrition, 140, 195–200. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.110858.195S

Soekirman. (2000). Ilmu Gizi dan Aplikasinya : Untuk Keluarga dan Masyarkat (1st ed.). DEPDIKNAS.

Soetjiningsih; Gde Ranuh, IG. N. (2013.). Tumbuh kembang anak / penyunting, Soetjiningsih, IG.N. Gde Ranuh. Jakarta: EGC

Solomon, A., & Tigabu, Z. (2008). Risk factor for severe acute malnutrition in children under the age of five: a case-control study. Ethiopian Journal Health and Development, 22(1), 21–25.

Stiglitz, J. E., Sen, A., & Jean-Paul Fitoussi. (2010). Mismeasuring Our Lives. Why GDP Does Not Add Up. The New Press.

Sukamto I. S, Hartono, Setyowati R, Mulyani S. 2021. Community Health Center Worker Perspectives on Stunting Risk Factors and Challenge of Stunting Prevention Program: A Qualitative Study. Teikyo Medical Journal Volume 44 (05): 1769 -1779

Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Stunting TNP2K. (2017). 100 Kabupaten/Kota Prioritas untuk Intervensi Anak Kerdil (Stunting) Volume 1. Sekretariat Wakil Preseiden Republik Indonesia.

UNICEF. (2012). Gizi Ibu dan Anak. UNICEF Indonesia: Ringkasan Kajian, 1–6.

UNICEF. (2017). The state of the world’s children: Statistical tables. https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/SOWC-2017-statistical-tables.pdf

UNICEF. (2020). Situasi anak di indonesia 2020. United Nations Children’s Fund.

Victoria CG, Christian P, Vidaletti LP, Gatica-Domínguez G, Menon P, Black RE. (2021). Revisiting Maternal and Child Undernutrition in Low-Income And Middle-Income Countries: Variable Progress Towards An Unfinished Agenda. 397(10282):1388-1399. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00394-9.

Wongdesmiwati. (2009). Analisis Ekonometrika. Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Dan Pengentasan Kemiskinan Di Indonesia.

World Bank. (2006). Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large-Scale Action. In World Bank (Vol. 13, Issue 9). The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

WHO. World Health Organization. (2022) Stunting prevalence among children under 5 years of age (%) (JME). In: WHO

Yadika, A. D. N., Berawi, K. N., & Nasution, S. H. (2019). Pengaruh Stunting terhadap Perkembangan Kognitif dan Prestasi Belajar. Jurnal Majority, 8(2), 273–282.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.7454/eki.v8i1.6796


  • There are currently no refbacks.