Kinerja Penyuluhan Keluarga Berencana di Indonesia: Pedoman Pengujian Efektivitas Kinerja pada Era Desentralisasi

Ukik Kusuma Kurniawan, Hadi Pratomo, Adang Bachtiar

Abstract


Keberhasilan program KB mengendalikan tingkat kelahiran di Indonesia selama lebih dari tiga dekade tidak terlepas dari peran petugas Penyuluh Keluarga Berencana (PKB). Di Rwanda, keaktifan penyuluhan oleh PKB dapat meningkatkan prevalensi kesertaan akseptor hingga 29%. Sejak tahun 2004, pascakebijakan desentralisasi di Indonesia, jumlah PKB
menurun drastis hingga menyisakan dua pertiga dari jumlah awal sekitar 3.500 petugas. Dampak perubahan tersebut tercermin pada angka fertilitas total (TFR) Indonesia berdasarkan data SDKI 2007 yang bertahan sama dengan data SDKI 2002-2003 (2,6 anak per wanita). Hal tersebut
dikhawatirkan dapat semakin meningkat apabila kinerja program KB termasuk kinerja petugas PKB tidak mendapat perhatian. Peningkatan TFR mengancam ledakan penduduk yang dapat menghabiskan sumber daya alam yang terbatas dengan segala konsekuensi negatif. Hal tersebut juga dapat memperberat sasaran BKKBN mencapai pertumbuhan penduduk yang seimbang pada tahun 2015. Direkomendasikan untuk menciptakan iklim kerja yang kondusif dalam lingkungan strategis yang terus berubah
sejak kebijakan desentralisasi program KB, antara lain melalui sistem reward dan model pelaporan berbasis teknologi informasi.

Kata kunci: Penyuluh, keluarga berencana, desentralisasi, kinerja

Abstract

The success of Family Planning (FP) program in controlling fertility level in Indonesia over the last three decades has been associated with the role of FP field workers. A study from Rwanda indicated that activity of the FP field workers to deliver counseling has increased contraceptive prevalence rate until 29% points. However, since decentralization policy has been adopted and implemented in Indonesia in 2004, later in 2009 it was found that the total number of FP field workers has been decreased to remain two-thirds from the previous number i.e. 35 thousands workers before desentralization
took place. A reflecting impact from this dynamic situation is a stagnant level of Indonesia’s total fertility rate (TFR) based on IDHS 2007 data that has been similar to that in IDHS 2002-2003, accounted for 2.6 children per woman. A stagnant TFR trend may stimulate fear of increasing TFR after then, when the FP program performance including that the performance of FP field workers are neglected. Increasing TFR would lead to a baby booming that threatens excessive utilization of natural resources that is already limited. This also worsens BKKBN efforts to achieve a zero growth population stage or replacement fertility level by year 2015. It is recommended that an optimum working climate should be pursued to yielding a maximum performance of FP field workers within these dynamic changes since decentralization policy has been applied. The recommendation includes establishing a reward system and recording reporting system with information technology basis.

Key words: Field workers, family planning, decentralization, performance


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v5i1.155

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