Perilaku Pencegahan COVID-19 Pada Tenaga Kesehatan Puskesmas Dalam Masa Pandemi di Indonesia Tahun 2020

Lia Meiliyana, Rita Damayanti

Abstract

Latar Belakang. COVID-19 merupakan jenis penyakit menular  baru yang ditemukan pada Desember 2019 dan menjadi pandemi di tahun 2020. Tenaga kesehatan (nakes) merupakan garda terdepan melawan COVID-19. Tingkat kematian nakes di Indonesia tertinggi ketiga di dunia (per 27 Januari 2021) maka perlu menganalisis faktor penyebab dari aspek perilaku.

Tujuan. menganalisis perilaku pencegahan COVID-19 pada tenaga kesehatan puskesmas, dalam masa pandemi di Indonesia tahun 2020 menggunakan teori Health Belief Model.

Metode. menggunakan metode kuantitatif cross sectional. Sumber data sekunder dari hasil survei kerjasama PPPKMI dan PPK FKM UI bulan Juni 2020. Data dianalisis dengan uji regresi logistik ganda. Variabel independen faktor modifikasi, persepsi kerawanan, persepsi keseriusan, persepsi hambatan, dan isyarat bertindak.

Hasil. Proporsi perilaku responden yang selalu memakai masker saat keluar rumah  sebanyak 93,7%, ditempat kerja sebanyak 96,2%, selalu mencuci tangan sebesar 90%, dan selalu menjaga jarak sebesar 86,7%. Rata-rata skor perilaku pencegahan sebesar 97,75 (skala 100). Variabel yang signifikan adalah jenis kelamin (p-value =0,003;OR=2,056), pengetahuan (p-value =0,032;OR=0,603),  dan persepsi hambatan (p-value=0,000; OR.2,080).

Kesimpulan. Persepsi hambatan menjadi faktor yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku pencegahan COVID-19 pada tenaga kesehatan di Puskesmas.

 

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 is a new contagious disease emerging in December 2019 and turned into a pandemic in 2020. Health workers are on the front line against COVID-19. The death rate for health workers in Indonesia is the third-highest globally (as of 27 January 2021); therefore, it is necessary to analyze the factors from a behavioral aspect.

Objective. to analyze the prevention behavior of COVID-19 among health workers at health centers (puskesmas) during the pandemic in Indonesia in 2020 using the Health Belief Model.

Method. used a cross-sectional approach on secondary data of collaboration PPPKMI PPKFKM UI in the June 2020 survey. Selected variables consist of modification factors, perceived threats, perceived barriers, and cues to action.

Results. The proportion of respondents that always wear a mask when leaving the house was 93,7%, at work 96.2%, always wash hands 90%, and always keep a distance 86.7%. The average of practicing preventive behavior was 97,75 points (scale 100). Independent variables that have a significant relationship with COVID-19 prevention behavior are gender (p-value=0,003;OR.2,056), knowledge (p-value=0,032;OR.0,603) and perceived barriers (p-value=0,0001 OR.2,080).

Conclusion. This study found that perceived barriers were the most influencing factor on COVID-19 prevention behavior among health workers at Puskesmas. 

Keywords

COVID-19, Perilaku Pencegahan, Tenaga Kesehatan, Puskesmas, Health Belief Model

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