Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Micrometer (PM2.5) to Prevalence of Impaired Lung Function and Asthma in Tangerang and Makassar

Budi Haryanto, Budy Resosoedarmo, Sri Tjahjani Budi Utami, Budi Hartono, Ema Hermawati

Abstract


Particulate matter 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) emission increased with increasing number of urban population as a result of increasing number of motor vehicles for their daily transportation. This study aimed to determine the level of impaired lung function and asthma and its relation to ambient levels of PM2.5 among migrant communities in Tangerang and Makassar and socioeconomic conditions. A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 4,250 and 2,900 respondents in Tangerang and Makassar respectively on April to September 2010. Cluster sampling approach was applied. PM2.5 ambient measurements in each city were based on the coordinates of 40 global positioning system locations. The PM2.5 levels found higher in the morning than afternoon in both cities, with average about six folds of WHO guideline of 35 mg/m3. Asthma prevalence was found similar in both cities (1.3%) and impaired lung function prevalence in Makassar was higher (24%) than Tangerang (21%). Data showed there was no association between PM2.5 levels to the prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function in both cities. The study confirmed that exposure to PM2.5 is associated with prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function and provided evidence showed that the effect of air pollution was modified by certain living environment characteristics. These findings suggest the improvement of housing ventilations and larger space of living room for better oxygen circulation.

Abstrak
Emisi partikel debu 2,5 mikrometer (PM2.5) meningkat dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk kota akibat peningkatan angka kendaraan bermotor sebagai transportasi penduduk sehari-hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat gangguan fungsi paru dan asma serta hubungannya dengan kadar ambien PM2.5 pada masyarakat migran di Tangerang dan Makassar dan kondisi sosial ekonomi. Desain potong lintang digunakan dengan melibatkan 4.250 dan 2.900 responden di Tangerang dan Makassar pada bulan April sampai September 2010. Pendekatan cluster sampling diterapkan. Pengukuran ambien PM2.5 di masing-masing kota berdasarkan koordinat 40 lokasi Global Positioning System (GPS). Kadar PM2.5 ditemukan lebih tinggi pada pagi hari dibandingkan siang hari di kedua kota tersebut dengan rata-rata enam kali lipat dari pedoman World Health Organization (WHO) 35 mg/m3. Prevalensi asma ditemukan sama pada kedua kota (1,3%) dan prevalensi gangguan fungsi paru di Makassar lebih tinggi (24%) dibandingkan di Tangerang (21%). Data menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan antara kadar PM2.5 terhadap prevalensi asma dan gangguan fungsi paru di kedua kota. Penelitian ini menguatkan bahwa pajanan PM2.5 berkaitan dengan prevalensi asma dan gangguan fungsi paru serta bukti yang diberikan menunjukkan bahwa efek polusi udara diubah oleh karakteristik lingkungan tertentu. Temuan ini menyarankan adanya perbaikan ventilasi rumah dan ruang tamu yang lebih luas untuk sirkulasi oksigen yang lebih baik.

Keywords


Ambient PM2.5; asthma; impaired lung function

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v10i4.823

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