Medication Adherence and Self-Management Practices among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia

Marzuki bin Muhammad, Farzana Yasmin, Alabed Ali A. Alabed, Bibi Florina Abdullah, Sandeep Poddar


This study was carried out to investigate the level of medication adherence and diabetic knowledge among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was done from February to July 2019 by giving a questionnaire to 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 40-80 years at three primary health cares in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia. The quantitative descriptive method was used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that knowledge was significantly related to poor adherence. When sex, history of diabetes, and education were accounted for, patients with low diabetic knowledge had an odds ratio of 4.53 for poor adherence compared to those with high knowledge (adj 95% CI (1.92-10.69), p-value = 0.001). To achieve the goal of regulating diabetes management in primary health care, a clinical supervision program should be implemented to improve staff competence in diabetes management and to empower patients through self-management.


medication adherence; self-management practices; type 2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



  1. World Health Organization. Health and Well-Being. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022.

  2. Balasubramaniam S, Lim SL, Goh LH, Subramaniam S, Tangiisuran B. Evaluation of illness perceptions and their associations with glycaemic control, medication adherence and chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Malaysia. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019; 13 (4): 2585-91.

  3. World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.

  4. National Institute of Health. National Health And Morbidity Survey 2019: Non-communicable diseases, healthcare demand, and health literacy—Key Findings. Selangor: Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2020.

  5. American Diabetes Association. 11. Microvascular complications and foot care: standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care. 2019; 42 (Supplement_1): S124-38.

  6. Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1970; 30; 607–610.

  7. Ahmad, Ramli A, Islahudin F, Paraidathathu T. Medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated at primary health clinics in Malaysia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013; 7: 525-530.

  8. Aminde LN, Tindong M, Ngwasiri CA, Aminde JA, Njim T, Fondong AA, et al. Adherence to antidiabetic medication and factors associated with non-adherence among patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in two regional hospitals in Cameroon. BMC Endocr Disord. 2019; 19 (1): 1-9.

  9. Chew BH, Vos RC, Pouwer F, Rutten GEHM. The associations between diabetes distress and self-efficacy, medication adherence, self-care activities and disease control depend on the way diabetes distress is measured: Comparing the DDS-17, DDS-2 and the PAID-5. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2018; 142: 74-84.

  10. Gholamaliei B, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Roshanaei G, Rezapour-Shahkolaei F. Medication Adherence and its Related Factors in Patients with Type II Diabetes. J Educ Community Health. 2016; 2 (4): 3-12.

  11. Leon BM, Maddox TM. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research. World Journal of Diabetes. 2015; 6 (13): 1246.

  12. Kamillah S, Panduragan SL, Poddar S, Abdullah BF. Patients’ Experiences in Using Diabetes Self-Management Application: A Scoping Review. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal). 2022; 17 (Special Issue 1): 67-73.

  13. Zaman Z, Shohas MAAA, Bijoy MH, Hossain M, Al Sakib S. Assessing Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Diabetes among Pregnant Women. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research. 2022; 5 (1): 29-34.

  14. Epstein LH, Jimenez-Knight T, Honan AM, Paluch RA, Bickel WK. Imagine to Remember: An Episodic Future Thinking Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2022; 16: 95.

  15. Zamanillo-Campos R, Serrano-Ripoll MJ, Taltavull-Aparicio JM, Gervilla-García E, Ripoll J, Fiol-deRoque MA, Boylan AM, et al. Patients’ Views on the Design of DiabeText, a New mHealth Intervention to Improve Adherence to Oral Antidiabetes Medication in Spain: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022; 19 (3): 1902.

  16. Imai C, Li L, Hardie RA, Georgiou A. Adherence to guideline-recommended HbA1c testing frequency and better outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 5-year retrospective cohort study in Australian general practice. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2021; 30 (9): 706-14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.