SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia

Iwan Ariawan, Hafizah Jusril, Muhammad N Farid, Pandu Riono, Wiji Wahyuningsih, Widyastuti Widyastuti, Dwi Oktavia T L Handayani, Endang Sri Wahyuningsih, Rebekka Daulay, Retno Henderiawati, Safarina G Malik, Rintis Noviyanti, Leily Trianty, Nadia Fadila, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Neeraja Venkateswaran, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, William A. Hawley, Juliette Morgan, Paul M Pronyk


The SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in low- and middle-income countries remain poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to increase knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in urban settings. A population-based serosurvey among individuals aged one year or older was conducted in Jakarta. Employing a multistage sampling design, samples were stratified by district, slum, and non-slum residency, sex, and age group. Blood samples were tested for IgG against three different SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying sample weights and adjusting for cluster characteristics. In March 2021, this study collected 4,919 respondents. The weighted estimate of seroprevalence was 44.5% (95% CI = 42.5-46.5). Seroprevalence was highest among adults aged 30-49 years, with higher seroprevalence in women and the overweight/obese group. Respondents residing in slum areas were 1.3-fold more likely to be seropositive than non-slum residents. It was estimated that4,717,000 of Jakarta's 10.6 million residents had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that approximately 10 infections were undiagnosed/underreported for every reported case. About one year after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed, close to half of Jakarta's residents have been infected by SARS-CoV-2.


antibodies; COVID-19; immunity; SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence

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