The Influence of Intrapersonal Constraints on Travel Intention of People at High Risk from COVID-19 during the New Normal

Dyah Widiyastuti, Ikasari Kusuma Wardhani


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism constraints have created a challenge for inclusive tourism, especially for older people and people with comorbidities. This study examined intrapersonal constraints’ effect on the travel intentions of people facing fewer opportunities for tourism due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could disrupt their well-being fulfillment. The data were collected through an online survey of Jakarta citizens aged 46 years and older from the end of June to September 2021, and a total of 337 responses were accumulated. This study applied partial least square structural equation modeling to test the moderating effect of intrapersonal constraints toward the theory of planned behavior and revealed that the travel intentions of people at high risk from COVID-19 were considered high and were directly influenced by subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intrapersonal constraints. High travel intention implies that intrapersonal constraints do not extensively weaken at-risk people’s desire to travel during the new normal.


constraint, COVID-19, intention, theory of planned behavior, tourism

Full Text:



 1. Marmion M, Hindley A. Tourism and health: understanding the relationship. Good Health and Well-Being. 2020: 738-46.

 2. World Health Organization. Basic documents. World Health Organization; 2020.

 3. Assembly UG. Universal declaration of human rights. UN General Assembly. 1948; 302 (2): 14-25.

 4. Komisi Penanganan COVID-19 dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (KPCPEN). Peta sebaran. KPCPEN; 2021.

 5. CNN Indonesia. Ahli ungkap faktor pasien usia 45-65 rentan wafat kena corona. CNN Indonesia; 2020.

 6. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Buku kesehatan lanjut usia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2016.

 7. Mas’udi W, Winata PS. New normal: perubahan sosial ekonomi dan politik akibat COVID-19. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press; 2020.

 8. Governor of DKI Jakarta. Regulation of the Governor of DKI Jakarta number 51 of 2020 regarding the implementation of large-scale social restriction in transition period towards healthy, secured, and productive community; 2020.

 9. BBC News Online. Corona virus may never go away, World Health Organization warns. BBC News Online; 2020.

 10. Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. Press release: Kemenparekraf luncurkan kampanye penerapan protokol kesehatan ‘Indonesia Care’; 2020.

 11. Ivanova M, Ivanov IK, Ivanov S. Travel behaviour after the pandemic: the case of Bulgaria. Anatolia. 2021; 32 (1): 1-1.

 12. Badan Pusat Statistik. Statistik wisatawan nusantara. Jakarta; BPS RI; 2019.

 13. Cai S. Leisure patterns and constraints reported by selected Chinese University Students. University of Waterloo; 2015.

 14. Nazir MU, Yasin I, Tat HH. Destination image’s mediating role between perceived risks, perceived constraints, and behavioral intention. Heliyon 7. 2021; e07613: 28p.

 15. Senbeto DL, Hon AH. The impacts of social and economic crises on tourist behaviour and expenditure: an evolutionary approach. Current Issues in Tourism. 2020; 23 (6): 740-55.

 16. Wachyuni SS, Kusumaningrum DA. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic: how are the future tourist behavior? Journal of Education, Society, and, Behavioural Sciences. 2020; 33 (4): 67-76.

 17. Graham A, Kremarik F, Kruse W. Attitudes of ageing passengers to air travel since the coronavirus pandemic. Journal of Air Transport Management. 2020; 87: 101865: 5p.

 18. Andreani F, Njo A. The impact of travel constraints on travel intention. Promoting creative tourism: current issues in tourism research. 1st ed. Routledge; 2021.

 19. Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 50. 1991; 179-211.

 20. Sekaran U, Bougie R. Research methods for business. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons; 2016.

 21. Kyriazos TA. Applied psychometrics: sample size and sample power considerations in factor analysis (EFA, CFA) and SEM in general. Psychology. 2018; 9 (08): 2207.

 22. Schultz JR. Applying the theory of planned behavior to participation in sustainable tourism certification programs [Doctoral thesis]. The University of Utah; 2014.

 23. Pujihastuti I. Prinsip penulisan kuesioner penelitian. CEFARS: Jurnal Agribisnis dan Pengembangan Wilayah. 2010; 2 (1): 43-56.

 24. Ghozali I. Partial least squares konsep, teknik, dan aplikasi menggunakan program SmartPLS 3.2.9 untuk penelitian empiris (3rd Ed). Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro; 2021.

 25. Riduwan MB. Belajar mudah penelitian untuk guru-karyawan dan peneliti pemula. Bandung: Alfabeta; 2019.

 26. Abd Aziz N, Long F, Murad SM. Examining travel constraints and perceived risk on intention to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Malaysian consumers. 2021; 27: 200-19.

 27. Hamid S, Bano N. Behavioral Intention of Traveling in the period of COVID-19: an application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and perceived risk. International Journal of Tourism Cities; 2021.

 28. Liu Y, Shi H, Li Y, Amin A. Factors influencing Chinese residents’ post-pandemic outbound travel intentions: an extended theory of planned behavior model based on the perception of COVID-19. Tourism Review. 2021; 76 (4): 871-91.

 29. Han H, Al-Ansi A, Chua BL, Tariq B, Radic A, Park SH. The post-coronavirus world in the international tourism industry: application of the theory of planned behavior to safer destination choices in the case of US outbound tourism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17 (18): 6485.

 30. Sánchez-Cañizares SM, Cabeza-Ramírez LJ, Muñoz-Fernández G, Fuentes-García FJ. Impact of the perceived risk from Covid-19 on intention to travel. Current Issues in Tourism. 2021; 24 (7): 970-84.

 31. Stankov U, Filimonau V, VujičićMD. A mindful shift: an opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world. Tourism Geographies. 2020; 22 (3): 703-12.

 32. He H, Harris L. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on corporate social responsibility and marketing philosophy. Journal of Business Research. 2020; 116: 176-82.

 33. Nguyen NM, Pham MQ, Pham M. Public’s travel intention following COVID-19 pandemic constrained: a case study in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business. 2021; 8 (8): 181-9.

 34. Purnama SG, Susanna D. Hygiene and sanitation challenge for COVID-19 prevention in Indonesia. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal). 2020; 6-13.

 35. Bae SY, Chang PJ. The effect of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) risk perception on behavioural intention towards ‘untact’ tourism in South Korea during the first wave of the pandemic (March 2020). Current Issues in Tourism. 2021; 24 (7): 1017-35.



  • There are currently no refbacks.