The Psychological and Sleep-Related Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review

Tetti Solehati, Cecep Eli Kosasih, Yanti Hermayanti, Henny Suzana Mediani


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact on mental health and sleeps quality that is unprecedented in the 21st century. This systematic review aimed to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 and its effect on people’s sleep. Systematic searches were conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest from 2019 to August 2020, following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were selected based on eligibility criteria such as having a cross-sectional study design, assessing the general public’s mental health status or sleep problems, medical workers and non-medical workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, and using standardized and validated scales for measurement. The keywords: COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND Mental health OR Psychological health AND General population OR General public AND sleep AND Impact of Coronavirus disease 2019. A total of 23 articles were selected after being assessed. During the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical workers were found to have psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, stress, PTSD, psychological distress, somatization symptoms, suicidal ideation, high risk of severe mental illness, worry, and insomnia. Non-medical workers experienced symptoms of depression. The general public experienced psychological problems: depression, anxiety, stress, bad mood, inability to stop thinking about COVID-19, panic, and experiencing sleep problems such as changing sleep patterns, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, difficulty with sleep initiation, and shortened sleep duration. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with psychological problems and sleep disorders for medical workers, non-medical workers, and the general public.


COVID-19, medical workers, mental health, psychological impact, the non-medical

Full Text:



 1.Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Wang HJPr. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public–a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2020:113190.

 2.Anand K, Karade S, Sen S, Gupta R. SARS-CoV-2: Camazotz’s curse.Medical Journal, Armed Forces India. 2020;76(2):136.

 3.Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Nasri F, Lui LM, Gill H, Phan L, et al. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a systematic review; 2020.

 4.Munster VJ, Koopmans M, van Doremalen N, van Riel D, de Wit E. A novel coronavirus emerging in China—key questions for impact assessment. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(8):692-4.

 5.Cheng J, Huang C, Zhang G, Liu D, Li P, Lu C, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Henan. Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 2020;43:E027-E.

 6.World Health Organization. Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) 2020; 2020.

 7.Wang J, Gong Y, Chen Z, Wu J, Feng J, Yan S, et al. Sleep disturbances among Chinese residents during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak and associated factors. 2020;74:199-203.

 8.Thakur V, Jain AJB. COVID 2019-suicides: a global psychological pandemic. 2020;88:952.

 9.Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. 2020;3(3):e203976-e.

 10.Xiang Y-T, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. 2020;7(3):228-9.

 11.Dhande KK, Sharma SJHF, Manufacturing Ei, Industries S. Influence of shift work in process industry on workers’ occupational health, productivity, and family and social life: an ergonomic approach.2011;21(3):260-8.

 12.Patterson PD, Weaver MD, Frank RC, Warner CW, Martin-Gill C, Guyette FX, et al. Association between poor sleep, fatigue, and safety outcomes in emergency medical services providers. 2012;16(1):86-97.

 13.Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int JSurg. 2010;8(5):336-41.

 14.Joanna Briggs Institute. Checklist for prevalence studies critical appraisal tools for use in JBI Systematic reviews 2017; 2020.

 15.Abdulah DM, Musa DHJSMX. Insomnia and stress of physicians during COVID-19 outbreak. 2020;2:100017.

 16.Juan Y, Yuanyuan C, Qiuxiang Y, Cong L, Xiaofeng L, Yundong Z, et al. Psychological distress surveillance and related impact analysis of hospital staff during the COVID-19 epidemic in Chongqing, China.2020;103:152198.

 17.Song X, Fu W, Liu X, Luo Z, Wang R, Zhou N, et al. Mental health status of medical staff in emergency departments during coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic in China. 2020;88:60-5.

 18.Sahu D, Agrawal T, Rathod V, Bagaria V. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on orthopedic surgeons in India: a survey. 2020;11:S283-S90.

 19.Hong S, Ai M, Xu X, Wang W, Chen J, Zhang Q, et al. Immediatepsychological impact on nurses working at 42 government-designated hospitals during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a cross-sectional study. 2021;69(1):6-12.

 20.McIntyre RS, Lee Y. Projected increases in suicide in Canada as a consequence of COVID-19. J Psychiatry research. 2020;290:113104.

 21.Pillay L, van Rensburg DCCJ, van Rensburg AJ, Ramagole DA, Holtzhausen L, Dijkstra HP, et al. Nowhere to hide: the significant impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) measures on elite and semi-elite South African athletes. 2020;23(7):670-9.

 22.Yu BY-M, Yeung W-F, Lam JC-S, Yuen SC-S, Lam SC, Chung VC-H, et al. Prevalence of sleep disturbances during COVID-19 outbreak in an urban Chinese population: a cross-sectional study. 2020;74:18-24.

 23.Duan L, Shao X, Wang Y, Huang Y, Miao J, Yang X, et al. An investigation of mental health status of children and adolescents in china during the outbreak of COVID-19. 2020;275:112-8.

 24.Wang L-Q, Zhang M, Liu G-M, Nan S-Y, Li T, Xu L, et al. Psychological impact of coronavirus disease (2019) (COVID-19) epidemic on medical staff in different posts in China: a multicenter study. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2020;129:198-205.

 25.Temsah M-H, Al-Sohime F, Alamro N, Al-Eyadhy A, Al-Hasan K, Jamal A, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2020;13(6):877-82.

 26.Su H, Wo W, Jianmei C, Qi Z, et al. The psychological status of 8817 hospital workers during COVID-19 epidemic: a cross-sectional study in Chongqing. 2020;276:555-61.

 27.Chew NW, Lee GK, Tan BY, Jing M, Goh Y, Ngiam NJ, et al. A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. 2020;88:559-65.

 28.Zhu Z, Xu S, Wang H, Liu Z, Wu J, Li G, et al. COVID-19 in Wuhan: sociodemographic characteristics and hospital support measures associated with the immediate psychological impact on healthcare workers. 2020;24:100443.

 29.Korkmaz S, Kazgan A, Çekiç S, Tartar AS, Balcı HN, Atmaca M. The anxiety levels, quality of sleep and life and problem-solving skills in healthcare workers employed in COVID-19 services. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2020;80:131-6.

 30.Fang X, Zhang J, Teng C, Zhao K, Su K-P, Wang Z, et al. Depressive symptoms in the frontline non-medical workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2020;276:441-5.

 31.Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. J Psychiatry research. 2020;288:112954.

 32.Ahmed MZ, Ahmed O, Aibao Z, Hanbin S, Siyu L, Ahmad A. Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated psychological problems. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;51:102092.

 33.Islam MS, Ferdous MZ, Potenza MN. Panic and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi people: an online pilot survey early in the outbreak. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2020;276:30-7.

 34.Ping W, Zheng J, Niu X, Guo C, Zhang J, Yang H, et al. Evaluation of health-related quality of life using EQ-5D in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020;15(6):e0234850.

 35.Madani A, Boutebal SE, Bryant CR. The psychological impact of confinement linked to the coronavirus epidemic COVID-19 in Algeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(10):3604.

 36.Newby JM, O’Moore K, Tang S, Christensen H, Faasse KJPo. Acute mental health responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. 2020;15(7):e0236562.

 37.Wu S, Li Z, Li Z, Xiang W, Yuan Y, Liu Y, et al. The mental state and risk factors of Chinese medical staff and medical students in early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic. Comprehensive Psychiatry.2020:152202.

 38.Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu YJGp. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. 2020;33(2).

 39.Herrero San Martin A, Parra Serrano J, Diaz Cambriles T, Arias Arias EM, Muñoz Méndez J, del Yerro Álvarez MJ, et al. Sleep characteristics in health workers exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic. Sleep Medicine; 2020.

 40.Sheraton M, Deo N, Dutt T, Surani S, Hall-Flavin D, Kashyap R. Psychological effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on healthcare workers globally: a systematic review. Psychiatry Research. 2020;292:113360.

 41.Pan A, Liu L, Wang C, Guo H, Hao X, Wang Q, et al. Association of public health interventions with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. 2020;323(19):1915-23.

 42.Holmes EA, O’Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science; 2020.

 43.Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. 2020;15(4):e0231924.

 44.Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, et al. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry research. 2020:112934.

 45.Lei L, Huang X, Zhang S, Yang J, Yang L, Xu MJMsmimjoe, et al. Comparison of prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression among people affected by versus people unaffected by quarantine during the COVID-19 epidemic in Southwestern China. 2020;26:e924609-1.

 46.Yaribeygi H, Panahi Y, Sahraei H, Johnston TP, Sahebkar AJEj. The impact of stress on body function: A review. 2017;16:1057.

 47.Tran BX, Dang AK, Thai PK, Le HT, Le XTT, Do TTT, et al. Coverage of health information by different sources in communities: implication for COVID-19 epidemic response. 2020;17(10):3577.

 48.Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang Y-T, Liu Z, Hu S, et al. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. 2020;7(4):e17-e8.

 49.Carek PJ, Laibstain SE, Carek SM. Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2011;41(1):15-28.



  • There are currently no refbacks.