A Holistic-Comprehensive Approach: Best Practices to Improve Health Policy for COVID-19 Pandemic

Febri Endra Budi Setyawan, Retno Lestari


The COVID-19 pandemic affects entire communities and causes a huge impact on all life aspects which include biological, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. Health systems and health policies are promising developments and opportunities to review progress and accelerate interventions in COVID-19 control. Studies devoted to core holistic-comprehensive issues surrounding this pandemic are limited. Therefore, this article aimed to review several best practice studies that reflect holistic-comprehensive approaches to COVID-19. A comprehensive literature review was written based on 15 articles from the  data sources which are Google Scholar, Science Direct, ProQuest Health, and Medical Complete, and ProQuest Science Journals from 2010 to 2020, searched terms related to holistic, comprehensive, outbreak, pandemic, epidemics, and COVID-19. There are many evidence-based practices on safe and effective strategies to improve all aspects of well-being before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Among these promising strategies, a holistic-comprehensive approach could also be considered as a necessary action to improve health policy during the pandemic. A holistic-comprehensive approach involved providing bio-psycho-socio-spiritual care and offered a continuum of healthcare that provides promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. A holistic-comprehensive approach to the COVID-19 pandemic requires a sustained commitment from entire communities, stakeholders, and policymakers to achieve better health outcomes for all.


coronavirus, health policy, holistic-comprehensive, pandemic

Full Text:



 1. Supriyanto S, Ernawaty E, Setyawan FEB, Lestari R. Enhancing Family Medicine Practice in Developing Countries through a Holistic-Comprehensive Model: A Review. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. 2019; 10(10): 774-778. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.02910.3.

 2. Setyawan FEB. Pendekatan Pelayanan Kesehatan Dokter Keluarga (Pendekatan Holistik Komprehensif). Sidoarjo: Zifatama Jawara; 2019.

 3. Pritasari K. Public Health and Political Commitment: Learning Toward Comprehensive Public Health Effort. Indonesia's Current Situation and Challenges; 2019 [updated 2020 April 15; cited 2020 April 26]. Available from: http://www.iakmi.or.id/internationalsymposium/files/materi/Simposia%207_Public%20Health%20and%20Political%20Commitment.pdf.

 4. Supriyanto S, Setyawan FEB, Ernawaty E, Prayoga D. Kebijakan Kesehatan dan Analisis Kebijakan. Sidoarjo: Zifatama Jawara; 2020.

 5. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Internal Medicine [serial on the Internet]. March 2020 [cited 2020 May 27]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994.

 6. Stojkoski V, Utkovski Z, Jolakoski P, Tevdovski D, Kocarev L. The socio-economic determinants of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. SSRN [serial on the Internet]. April 2020 [cited 2020 May 10]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.15.20066068.

 7. Abrams EM, Szefler SJ. COVID-19 and the impact of social determinants of health. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine [serial on the Internet]. May 2020 [cited 2020 May 10]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30234-4.

 8. Guan Y, Deng H, Zhou X. Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on career development: Insights from cultural psychology. Journal of Vocational Behavior [serial on the Internet]. May 2020 [cited 2020 May 27]; 103438. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103438.

 9. Khenti A, Fréel S, Trainor R, Mohamoud S, Diaz P, Suh E, et al. Developing a holistic policy and intervention framework for global mental health. Health Policy and Planning. 2015; 31(1): 37–45. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czv016.

 10. Roca A, Afolabi MO, Saidu Y, Kampmann B. Ebola: a holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015; 135(4): 856-67. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.02.015.

 11. Vesely A. Theory and Methodology of Best Practice Research: A Critical Review of the Current State. Central European Journal of Public Policy. 2011; 5(2): 98-117. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260054073_Arnost_Vesely_Theory_and_Methodology_of_Best_Practice_Research_A_Critical_Review_of_the_Current_State/fulltext/57bf6ae108ae2f5eb32e92eb/Arnost-Vesely-Theory-and-Methodology-of-Best-Practice-Research-A-Critical-Review-of-the-Current-State.pdf.

 12. Chandran P, Chin V, Harjivan C, Reeves M, Zhou Y. Detect, Develop, and Deliver: A Holistic Approach to Managing Outbreaks [Internet]. Boston: Boston Consulting Group; 2020 [updated 2020 February; cited 2020 May 8]. Available from: https://media-publications.bcg.com/Whitepaper-Detect-Develop-Deliver-A-Holistic-Approach-to-Managing-Outbreaks-feb-2020.pdf.

 13. Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia. Press Statement of President of the Republic of Indonesia on Government Policy to Handle the Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic, Thursday, 9 April 2020 at the Merdeka Palace, Jakarta [Internet]. Jakarta: Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia; 2020 [updated 2020 February; cited 2020 May 27]. Available from: https://setkab.go.id/en/press-statement-of-president-of-the-republic-of-indonesia-on-government-policy-to-handle-the-impacts-of-COVID-19-pandemic-thursday-9-april-2020-at-the-merdeka-palace-jakarta/.

 14. Respati T, Feriandi Y, Ndoen E, Raksanegara A, Djuhaeni H, Sofyan A, et al. A Qualitative Ecohealth Model of Dengue Fever (DF) in Bandung, Indonesia. Int J Trop Dis. 2018; 1(1): 1-12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.23937/ijtd-2017/1710008.

 15. Marchelin T. Government Pays $1.5m Down Payment for COVID-19 Patients' Treatment [Internet]. 2020 [updated 2020 May 9; cited 2020 May 27]. Available from: https://jakartaglobe.id/news/government-pays-15m-down-payment-for-covid19-patients-treatment.

 16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Communicators: Get Your Community Ready [Internet]. Atlanta: CDC; 2020 [updated 2020 April 15; cited 2020 April 26]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/public-health-communicators-get-your-community-ready.html.

 17. Loignon C, Nouvet E, Couturier F, Benhadj L, Adhikari NKJ, Murthy S, et al. Barriers to supportive care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa: Results of a qualitative study. PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(9): e0201091. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201091.

 18. Alonge O, Sonkarlay S, Gwaikolo W, Fahim C, Cooper JL, Peters DH. Understanding the role of community resilience in addressing the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Liberia: a qualitative study (community resilience in Liberia). Glob Health Action. 2019; 12(1): 1662682. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1662682.

 19. Saha S, Islam M, Saha S, Uddin MJ, Rahman H, Das RC, et al. Designing Comprehensive Public Health Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Endemic Countries: Importance of Including Different Healthcare Facilities. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018; 218(suppl_4): S227-S231. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy191.

 20. Craig AT, Joshua CA, Sio AR, Teobasi B, Dofai A, Dalipanda T, et al. Enhanced surveillance during a public health emergency in a resource-limited setting: Experience from a large dengue outbreak in Solomon Islands, 2016-17. PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(6): e0198487. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198487.

 21. Njuguna C, Jambai A, Chimbaru A, Nordstrom A, Conteh R, Latt A, et al. Revitalization of integrated disease surveillance and response in Sierra Leone post Ebola virus disease outbreak. BMC Public Health. 2019; 19: 364. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6636-1.

 22. Levine M, Fraser M. Elements of a Comprehensive Public Health Response to the Opioid Crisis. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2018; 169(10): 712. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-1757.

 23. Kinsman J, Angrén J, Elgh F. Furberg M, Mosquera PA, Otero-García L, et al. Preparedness and response against diseases with epidemic potential in the European Union: a qualitative case study of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and poliomyelitis in five member states. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018; 18: 528. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3326-0.

 24. Afayo R, Buga M, Alege JB, Akugizibwe P, Atuhairwe C, Taremwa IM. Performance of Epidemic Preparedness and Response Committees to Disease Outbreaks in Arua District, West Nile Region. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2019; 2019: 1–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1437920.

 25. Fatiregun AA, Isere EE. Epidemic preparedness and management: A guide on Lassa fever outbreak preparedness plan. Nigerian medical journal: journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2017; 58(1): 1–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.218414.

 26. Abraham T. Lessons from the pandemic: the need for new tools for risk and outbreak communication. Emerging Health Threats Journal. 2011; 4(1): 7160. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3402/ehtj.v4i0.7160.

 27. Shen M, Xiao Y, Rong L. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 15818. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep15818.

 28. Rabelo I, Lee V, Fallah MP, Massaquoi M, Evlampidou I, Crestani R, et al. Psychological Distress among Ebola Survivors Discharged from an Ebola Treatment Unit in Monrovia, Liberia – A Qualitative Study. Frontiers in Public Health. 2016; 4: 142. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00142.

 29. Logie CH, Turan JM. How Do We Balance Tensions Between COVID-19 Public Health Responses and Stigma Mitigation? Learning from HIV Research. AIDS and Behavior. 2020; 1-4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02856-8.

&nbps;30. Siu JY. Qualitative study on the shifting sociocultural meanings of the facemask in Hong Kong since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak: implications for infection control in the post-SARS era. Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15: 73. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-016-0358-0.

 31. Arslantas K, Hierink F, Teng A, Lammers F, Meijerink C, Veneman B. Improving community resilience through the development of an epidemic risk and priority framework. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2019; 79: 25–26. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.077.

 32. Abdulkareem SA, Augustijn E-W, Filatova T, Musial K, Mustafa YT. Risk perception and behavioral change during epidemics: Comparing models of individual and collective learning. PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0226483. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226483.

 33. World Health Organization. Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2020 [updated 2020 March 18; cited 2020 April 26]. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf.

 34. Sepers CE, Fawcett SB, Hassaballa I, DiGennaro Reed F, Schultz J, Munodawafa D, et al. Evaluating implementation of the Ebola response in Margibi County, Liberia. Health Promotion International. 2018; 2018: 1-9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/day010.

 35. Pan A, Liu L, Wang C, Guo H, Hao X, Wang Q, et al. Association of Public Health Interventions With the Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020; 323(19): 1915-1923. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6130.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v15i2.3937


  • There are currently no refbacks.