Ultraviolet Exposure and Photokeratitis Complaints among Informal Welding Workers in Depok, West Java, Indonesia

Maria K I J Yustheresani, Fajaria Nurcandra, Azizah Musliha Fitri, Annisa Ika Putri, Dyah Utari


One of the photokeratitis risk factors is acute reversible radiation of ultraviolet (UV) rays, which injure the cornea's epithelial tissue. Informal welding workers are susceptible populations to UV rays exposure. This study aimed to confirm the influence of UV radiation exposure on photokeratitis complaints in welding workers in Cimanggis, Depok, West Java. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2019 and used to select 100 welding workers purposively. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine photokeratitis complaints, age, education level, eye protection, safety knowledge, and work period; the UV radiation measured by A UV meter. Data were analyzed using a logistic regression test. We found the proportion of photokeratitis to be 84.0%, with 76.0% of UV radiation exceeding the Threshold Limit Values (TLV). The logistic regression test showed a significant effect of UV radiation on photokeratitis after controlling confounding variables (education level, eye protection, safety knowledge, and welding distance) (p-value = 0.006; AdjOR = 7.236; 95% CI: 1.74–30.07). It can be concluded that UV radiation, more than TLV, constitutes the primary risk factor for photokeratitis complaints. Risks for photokeratitis were influenced by low education level, poor eye protection, limited safety knowledge, and welding distance ≤ 45 cm.


photokeratitis, radiation, ultraviolet, welding, worker

Full Text:



 1. Moore LA, Hussey M, Ferreira JT, Wu B. Review of Photokeratitis: Corneal Response to Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) Exposure. S Afr Optom. 2010;69(3):123–31.

 2. McIntosh SE, Guercio B, Tabin GC, Leemon D, Schimelpfenig T. Ultraviolet Keratitis Among Mountaineers and Outdoor Recreationalists. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011;22(2):144–7.

 3. The College of Optometrists. Photokeratitis (Ultraviolet [UV] burn, Arc eye, Snow Blindness). 2018.

 4. Ontario Ministry of Labour. Ultraviolet Radiation in the Workplace. 2009;(August 1994):8.

 5. Harris PM. Workplace Injuries Involving the Eyes 2008. US Bur Labor Stat. 2011;2(1):3–9.

 6. Autralian Institute of Health and Welfare. Eye-related Injuries in Australia. Austrailan Injury Prevention Bullitin- National Injury Survellance Unit. Canbera: AIHW; 2009.

 7. Cai M, Zhang J. Epidemiological Characteristics of Work-related Ocular Trauma in Southwest Region of China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(8):9864–75.

 8. Kementrian Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. 2018;61.

 9. Kementrian Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. 2013.

 10. Sithole HL, Oduntan OA, Oriowo MO. Eye protection practices and symptoms among welders in the Limpopo Province of South Africa +. 2009;68(3):130–6.

 11. Ramdan IM, Mursydah SB, Jubaedah S. Photokeratoconjunctivitis Symptoms among Informal Welding Operators in North Samarinda, Indonesia. Glob Med Heal Commun. 2017;5(2):144–51.

 12. Suma’mur. Higiene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja (HIPERKES). 2nd ed. Jakarta: CV Sagung Seto; 2014.

 13. Ramdan IM. Memperbaiki kondisi kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja sektor informal melalui program corporate social responsibility perusahaan. J Manaj Pelayanan Kesehat. 2012;15(01):2–6.

 14. Mgonja CT. The Effects of Arc Welding Hazards To Welders and People Surrounding. Int J Mech Eng Technol. 2017;8(3):433–41.

 15. Esaiyas A, Sanbata H, Mekonnen Y. Occupational Health and Safety Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Wood and Metal Workers in Hawassa, Ethiopia. Annu Res Rev Biol. 2018;22(6):1–9.

 16. Olishifski JB. Fundamentals Of Industrial Hygiene. 2nd ed. Chicago: National Safety Council, nd; 1985.

 17. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Ultraviolet Radiation. 2016.

 18. Finn LE, Gutowski J, Alles S, Mirowitz N, Johnson C, Osterhoudt KC, et al. Photokeratitis Linked to Metal Halide Bulbs in Two Gymnasiums — Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(11):282–5.

 19. Setiawan D. Hubungan Antara Umur dan Intensitas Cahaya Las dengan Kelelahan Mata pada Juru Las PT. X di Kabupaten Gresik. Indones J Occup Saf Heal. 2016;5(2):142–52.

 20. Koyfman A, O’Connor REE. Ultraviolet Keratitis Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes. 2017.

 21. Muskita M, Martiana T, Soedirham O. Analysis of Photokeratitis-Related Risk Factors in Welders of PT. Pal Indonesia (Persero) Surabaya. Int J Res Eng Technol. 2015;04(04):512–6.

 22. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Welding - Radiation and the Effects On Eyes and Skin : OSH Answers. 2018.

 23. Budhathoki SS, Singh SB, Sagtani RA, Niraula SR, Pokharel PK. Awareness of Occupational Hazards and Use of Safety Measures Among Welders: A Cross-Sectional Study from Eastern Nepal. BMJ Open. 2014;4(6):1–7.

 24. Kaplan RM, Spittel ML, David DH (eds). Population Health: Behavioral and Social Science Insights / Understanding the Relationship Between Education and Health. AHRQ Publication. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health; 2015.

 25. Dehghani A, Ramsheh AR, Peyman A, Akhlaghi M, Rezaei L, Mahboubi M. Bandage Contact Lens for Ultraviolet Light Photo keratitis. Int J Med Res Heal Sci. 2016;5(8):285–7.

 26. Zoric L, Stojcic M. The Influence of Ultraviolet Radiation on Eye. Prim Heal Care Open Access. 2013;03(01):10–1.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v15i4.3283


  • There are currently no refbacks.