Personal Exposure of Traffic Policeman to Particulate Matter in Jakarta: Distribution of Size, Chemical Composition, and Work Time

Doni Hikmat Ramdhan, Eka Fitriani Ahmad, Fitri Kurniasari, Zuly Prima Rizky, Hardy Atmajaya, Muhayatun Santoso


Particulate matter (PM) is an air pollutant that has an impact on public health, especially in an urban area. The objective of this study was to analyze the personal concentration of PM2.5 and its composition among police working in the roadside area in Jakarta. PM measurement has done to the policeman that controlled traffic on four near highway locations in Jakarta. Sioutas impactor, Leland Legacy personal pump, and quartz fiber filter were chosen to measure the fine particles. Each PM was measured for 8-hour period. PM concentration was analyzed by the gravimetric method while tracing element and black carbon in PM0.25 by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and EEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer. As a result, near highway PM2.5 concentration in Jakarta during weekdays and weekends measurement are 92.18 ± 10.66 μg/m3, and 78.09 ± 11.61 μg/m3. S, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, and Pb are major elements found in all locations. The black carbon concentration in all location was 17 ± 5.7 μg/m3. A high concentration of fine particles, a traffic-related trace element in PM0.25, and black carbon are showed that traffic-related source is the major contributor to a high level of fine particulate matter at near highway locations in Jakarta. The weekday's concentration of PM2.5 and PM0.25 among Jakarta Policemen was higher than in the weekend concentration. A particle with size of less than 0.25 µm dominated the fine particles concentration. Further researcher is expected to see the difference in the effects of traffic-related particulate matter exposure between traffic policeman and police who work at office.


Black carbon, PM2.5, particulate matter composition, traffic-related particulate matter

Full Text:



World Health Organization. 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution 2014 [cited 2019 10]. Available from:

World Health Organization. Burden of disease from household air ­pollution for 2012. Geneva; 2012

Unger N, Bond TC, Wang JS, Koch DM, Menon S, Shindell DT, et al. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2010; 107(8): 3382-7

Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Statistik Transportasi DKI Jakarta 2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi DKI Jakarta; 2015

Clean Air Asia. The Clean Air Management Profiles (CAMPs) Indonesia. 2010

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Particulate Matter (PM) 2016; Available from:

Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollution. Long-term exposure to air pollution: effect on mortality; 2009

Cao J, Yang C, Li J, Chen R, Chen Bu, Gu D, Kan H. Association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in China: a cohort study. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011 Feb 28; 186(2-3): 1594-600

Rizky ZP, Yolla PB, Ramdhan DH. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2. 5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2016; 31(1): 185-6

Ramdhan DH, Ito Y, Yanagiba Y, Yamagishi N, Hayashi Y, Li C, et al. Nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust may disrupt testosterone biosynthesis and metabolism via growth hormone. Toxicology Letters. 2009; 191(2-3): 103-8

Wobrauschek P, Streli C, Lindgren ES. Energy Dispersive, X‐Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry; 2010

Taha G, Box GP, Cohen DD, Stelcer E. Black carbon measurement using laser integrating plate method. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2007; 41(3): 266-76

Hitchins J, Morawska L, Wolff R, Gilbert D. Concentrations of submicrometre particles from vehicle emissions near a major road. Atmospheric Environment. 2000; 34(1): 51-9

Lippmann M. Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their health effects. 3rd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2009

Daher N, Hasheminassab S, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Seasonal and spatial variability in chemical composition and mass closure of ambient ultrafine particles in the megacity of Los Angeles. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. 2013; 15(1): 283-95

Rowangould GM. A new approach for evaluating regional exposure to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2015 January 1; 1(34): 307-17

Santoso M, Lestiani D, Markwitz A. Characterization of airborne particulate matter collected at Jakarta roadside of an arterial road. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2013; 297(2): 165-9

Hu Z, Zhang L, Li Y. Investigation of tall oil fatty acid as antiwear agent to improve the lubricity of ultra-low sulfur diesels. Tribology International. 2017 October 1; 1(114): 57-64

Cross E, Sappok A, Fortner E, Hunter J, Jayne J, Brooks W, et al. Real-time measurements of engine-out trace elements: application of a novel soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer for emissions characterization. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. 2012; 134(7): 072801

Lin Y-C, Tsai C-J, Wu Y-C, Zhang R, Chi K-H, Huang Y-T, et al. Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, potential source, and fingerprinting metal ratio. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2015; 15(8): 4117-30

Boogaard H, Kos GP, Weijers EP, Janssen NA, Fischer PH, van der Zee SC, et al. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number. Atmospheric Environment. 2011; 45(3): 650-8

Strak M, Steenhof M, Godri KJ, Gosens I, Mudway IS, Cassee FR, et al. Variation in characteristics of ambient particulate matter at eight locations in the Netherlands–The RAPTES project. Atmospheric Environment. 2011; 45(26): 4442-53

Çuvalcı H, Celik HS. Investigation of the abrasive wear behaviour of ZA-27 alloy and CuSn10 bronze. Journal of materials science. 2011 July 1; 46(14): 4850-7

World Health Organization. Air Quality Guidelines 2001

Zhang J, Spikes H. On the mechanism of ZDDP antiwear film formation. Tribology Letters. 2016 August 1; 63(2): 24

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Report to congress on black ­carbon; 2012.



  • There are currently no refbacks.