Adverse Effect of Aerosol Pesticide on Lung Dysfunction amongPaddy Farmers in Purworejo, Central Java, Indonesia

Fajaria Nurcandra, Renti Mahkota, Tri Yunis Miko Wahyono


The World Health Organization estimated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be the highest non-communicable disease worldwide by2030, and pesticide exposure is one of major risk factors. This study aimed to determine effect of pesticide exposure on lung dysfunction among paddyfarmers. A case-control study was performed on April - May 2016 in Purworejo. The case group comprised 66 farmers suffering from lung dysfunction during2015 based on medical records, while the control group comprised 59 neighboring farmers showing normal lung function. Both case and control groups weretested using a spirometer and COPD assessment test (CAT) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis of pesticide quantity (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.317 -1.754) and duration of spraying (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.430 - 2.891) adjusted for confounders showed no clear associations. Pesticide remained a potentialhealth risk for lung dysfunction due to farming duration (OR = 5.61; 95% CI = 1.124 - 27.990) adjusted by age, personal protective equipment, records of lungdisease, smoking habit, dust exposure, and indoor air pollution. The farming duration was revealed to be a risk factor, but no clear association was found between quantity and duration of spraying to lung dysfunction.


aerosol, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, farmer, lung dysfunction, pesticide

Full Text:



 1. Perret JL, Walters EH, Abramson MJ, Mcdonald CF. The independent and combined effects of lifetime smoke exposures and asthma as they relate to COPD; 2014

 2. Rinsky JL. The role of occupational exposure to animal production in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among farmers in Iowa and North Carolina. University of North Carolina; 2015.

 3. Buralli RJ, Ribeiro H, Mauad T, Amato-Lourenço LF, Salge JM, Diaz-Quijano FA, et al. Respiratory condition of family farmers exposed to pesticides in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(6).

 4. Nurcandra F, Mahkota R, Shivalli S. Effect of personal protective equipment during pesticide application to neurological symptoms in farmers in Purworejo District, Indonesia. Kesmas Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional [Internet]. 2018;12(4):165–71. Available from:

 5. Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 2013. p. 6442–6471

 6. de Jong K, Boezen H, Kromhout H, Vermeulen R, Postma D, Vonk J. Pesticides and other occupational exposures are associated with airway obstruction: the LifeLines cohort study. Occup Env Med. 2014;71(2):88–96.

 7. Abu Sham’a F, Skogstad M, Nijem K, Bjertness E, Kristensen P. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in male Palestinian farmers. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2010;65(4):191–200.

 8. Damalas C a., Eleftherohorinos IG. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:1402–19.

 9. Fareed M, Pathak MK, Bihari V, Kamal R, Srivastava AK, Kesavachandran CN. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):1–10.

 10. Sapbamrer R, Nata S. Health symptoms related to pesticide exposure and agricultural tasks among rice farmers from northern Thailand. Environ Health Prev Med. 2014;19:12–20.

 11. Zhu X, Gao P, Gu Y, Xiao P, Liu M, Chen J. Positive rates and factors associated with abnormal lung function of greenhouse workers in China : a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Heal. 2017;14:1–12.

 12. Doust E, Ayres JG, Devereux G, Dick F, Crawford JO, Cowie H, et al. Is pesticide exposure a cause of obstructive airways disease? Eur Respir Rev. 2014;23(132):180–92.

 13. Pathak MK, Fareed M, Srivastava AK, Pangtey BS, Bihari V, Kuddus M, et al. Seasonal variations in cholinesterase activity, nerve conduction velocity and lung function among sprayers exposed to mixture of pesticides. Environ Sci Pollut Res [Internet]. 2013;20(10):7296–300. Available from:

 14. Alif SM, Dharmage SC, Benke G, Dennekamp M, Burgess JA, Perret JL, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age. Thorax. 2017;72(11):990–7.

 15. Lytras T, Kogevinas M, Kromhout H, Carsin A, Antó JM, Bentouhami H, et al. Occupational exposures and 20-year incidence of COPD : the European community respiratory health survey. Thorax. 2018;73:1008–15.

 16. Mohammadien H a., Hussein MT, El-Sokkary RT. Effects of exposure to flour dust on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of mill workers. Egypt J Chest Dis Tuberc [Internet]. 2013;62(4):745–53. Available from:

 17. Mamane A, Baldi I, Tessier JF, Raherison C, Bouvier G. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health. Eur Respir Rev [Internet]. 2015;24(136):306–19. Available from:



  • There are currently no refbacks.