Membangun Bangsa yang Sehat Produktif

Does Sampoerno

Abstract


Peran kesehatan yang dipahami pihak ekeskutif dan legislatif di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pengobatan dan penyembuhan penyakit, bukan membangun sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Sejak masa penjajahan, kebijakan kesehatan tersebut didominasi oleh kebijakan kuratif dengan fasilitas kesehatan utama Rumah Sakit, Puskesmas dan Balai Pengobat. Upaya kesehatan tersebut melemahkan argumentasi peran penting kesehatan dalam pembangunan bangsa. Konsep tersebut berpengaruh terhadap tujuan upaya kesehatan mencapai keadaan sehat produktif untuk semua yang dapat mengantarkan penduduk mencapai tingkat sehat produktif. Definisi sehat yang baru tersebut berpengaruh terhadap perubahan paradigma penanganan kesehatan dari “Health Program for Survival” ke “Health Program for Human Development”. Tujuan akhir program kesehatan berubah menjadi sehat produktif yang bernilai ekonomis bagi sebagian besar penduduk. Hak azasi kesehatan menurut WHO mencakup hak informasi, privasi, menikmati kemajuan teknologi kesehatan, pendidikan kesehatan, ketersediaan makanan dan gizi, mencapai standard hidup optimal, dan jaminan sosial. Sudah saatnya upaya kesehatan tidak lagi bertumpu pada pengobatan penyakit, tetapi pada upaya peningkatan dan pemeliharaan kesehatan serta pencegahan penyakit dan penanguulangan risiko. Masyarakat perlu dilibatkan secara aktif dalam pemeliharaan kesehatan melalui pendekatan: (1) “health gain approach” (2) “creation and production of their own health” dan (3) upaya “people’s health empowerment”.

Kata kunci : Paradigma pembangunan kesehatan, pembangunan manusia

Abstract

The role of health as perceived and understood by executives and legislatives in Indonesia is limited to medication of illness and curative aspect and not perceived as development of quality human resources. Since the Dutch colonial era, health policy in Indonesia is dominated by curative policy emphasizing on health facilities such as hospital, community health center, and health clinic. Those perception, policy, and effort has weakened and suppressed arguments on important roles of health in the development of nation. Newer concept of health stated that the goal of health effort is the achievement of productive health status for all meaning leading most of population to the productive health level. New definition of “health” is influencing the paradigm shift from “Health Program for Survival” to “Health Program for Human Development”. The end objective of health program has changed to productive health with economic value for most of the people. WHO human rights on health includes rights of information, privacy, rights to enjoy the advancement of health technology, health education, adequate food and nutrition, optimal living standard, and social security. Therefore, health effort should not be based on illness mediaction but on the improvement and maintenance of health, disease prevention, and risk reduction. Communities should be involved actively in health preservation and promotion through (1) “health gain approach” (2) “creation and production of their own health” and (3) “people’s health empowerment”.

Keywords : Health development paradigm, human development


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v3i1.239

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