Model Mitigasi Kebakaran Berbasis Masyarakat : Kajian Kualitatif pada Aparat Pemerintah dan LSM

Fatmah Fatmah

Abstract


Lingkungan masyarakat kota yang bebas kebakaran dapat tercipta melalui upaya pencegahan dan pemadaman kebakaran dini. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan model mitigasi kesiapsiagaan kebakaran berbasis masyarakat. Metoda kualitatif wawancara mendalam dilakukan terhadap 30 informan terpilih di Jabodetabek meliputi aparat kecamatan, kelurahan, Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat, dan Suku Dinas Pemadam Kebakaran. Mayoritas informan me-ngenal organisasi Barisan Sukarelawan Kebakaran, tetapi dalam pelaksanaan ditemukan beberapa kendala antara lain meliputi tidak ada honorarium, status pekerjaan, dan anggota penduduk musiman. Hal tersebut berakibat banyak anggota yang berhenti dan sulit merekrut anggota baru. Bentuk upaya pen-cegahan kebakaran yang dilakukan masyarakat meliputi simulasi, penyuluhan, dan pelatihan bahaya kebakaran, serta menjadi anggota Barisan Sukarelawan Kebakaran. Tiap wilayah mempunyai bentuk yang bervariasi sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku di masyarakat karena masih bersifat regional serta belum
dilegitimasikan dalam Undang-Undang Nasional. Alternatif model berbasis masyarakat yang terbaik adalah memberdayakan Barisan Sukarelawan Kebakaran
mengingat program tersebut telah berjalan dan dikenal masyarakat. Diharapkan model ini lebih mudah diterima masyarakat karena menjadi bagian program pembangunan di beberapa wilayah. Dukungan masyarakat yang kuat terhadap Barisan Sukarelawan Kebakaran menentukan kelancaran pelaksanaan di lapangan.

Kata kunci : Model, pemberdayaan, mitigasi, kebakaran

Abstract

Urban environment which is free from fire can be created through early fire prevention and controlling efforts. The research objective was to develop community-based model in mitigation of fire preparedness. Depth interviews were conducted in the selected 30 informants at Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi cities. They came from subdistrict authorities, villages, non government organizations, and Fire Government Institution staffs (Sudin Damkar). The majority of informants had familiarity with the organization, namely BALAKAR. However, its implementation had some constraints such as no provision of salary, employment status, and seasonal residents were attached to the members themselves. Consequently, many members were resigned and it was difficult to recruit new members. Type of fire prevention efforts undertaken in community were participating on fire simulation, extension, and training, and to be member of BALAKAR. However, the shapes were still scattered because each region had its own form depend on rules in society and had not yet legi-timized in a national law because on regional level. The best alternative community-based model was empowering BALAKAR because of this program is still running and known by community. It was expected that the model will be accepted easily by community for being part of development programs in several areas. Later on, strong support from the community will determine the successful of BALAKAR implementation in the field.

Key words : Model, empowerment, mitigation, fire


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v4i3.181

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