Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Pasar Rebo dan Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan

Nur Asniati Djaali, Tris Eryando

Abstract


Salah satu penyebab utama angka kematian bayi yang tinggi adalah masalah berat badan lahir di bawah 2500 gram (berat badan lahir rendah). Berdasarkan data dari Statistik Rumah Sakit Indonesia tahun 2005, sekitar 40,7% kematian bayi disebabkan oleh berat lahir rendah, pertumbuhan janin yang lambat, malnutrisi janin, dan gangguan yang berhubungan
dengan kecukupan masa kehamilan. Angka BBLR di RSUD Pasar Rebo pada tahun 2007 mencapai 8,7%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi berat lahir menggunakan data rekam medis RSUD Pasar Rebo. Studi ini menggunakan desain crosseksional dan data retrospektif rekam medis rumah sakit. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh ibu yang melahirkan di RSUD Pasar Rebo, Sampel diperoleh dengan teknik simple random sampling, dan jumlah sampel dihitung menggunakan
rumus sample size uji hipotesis koefisien korelasi dengan variabel kontinyu/ numerik. Hasil analisis dan pengolahan data menunjukkan berat lahir berdistribusi normal dengan rata-rata sebesar 3126,6 gram dan standar deviasi sebesar 453,65 gram. Tingkat pendidikan, usia kehamilan, dan
kenaikan berat badan ibu selama hamil berhubungan signifikan dengan berat badan bayi lahir. Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi linier ganda, didapatkan bahwa ketiga variabel tersebut berkontribusi pada berat lahir dan tingkat pendidikan berkontribusi paling besar.

Kata kunci: Berat lahir, berat lahir rendah

Abstract

Of the main causes of high infant mortality rate is birth weight under 2500 gram (low birth weight/LBW). Base on data from Indonesian Hospital Statistic in 2005 =, as much as 40,7% baby’s death was caused by low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal malnutrition, and problem related
with term of pregnancy. Base on data from sample, LBW in RSUD Pasar Rebo in 2007 reached 8,7%.This study is aimed to know the factors that influence infant birth weight as observed from medical record in Pasar Rebo Public General Hospital, Jakarta, and to identify what factor influence most  in predicting infant birth weight. A cross-sectional study was designed using retrospective data of hospital medical record. The population of this study was all mothers who gave birth in this hospital, had complete registration and data containing variables observed, such as infant birth weight, and at least performed antenatal care visit in the first trimester. Simple random sampling was administered. The amount of samples were obtained using correlation coefficient hypothesis testing sample size formula with continuous variable. Data processing and analysis showed that infant birth weight are distributed normally with mean 3126.6 grams and 453.655 grams standard deviation. Further analysis showed that educational level, term of pregnancy, and weight-gained during pregnancy were significantly related with infant birth weight. Using double linear regression analysis, those three variables contributed in predicting infant birth weight, where the educational level contributed most.

Key words: Infant birth weight, low birth weight.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v5i2.151

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