Analisis Kebijakan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) dalam Penanggulangan dan Pencegahan COVID-19 di Kota Depok

Julia Christy Labetubun, Anggun Rachmawati, Febby Zuriani Fitria, Yayu Mukaromah, Yudith Rachmadiah, Hadi Pratomo

Abstract

Latar Belakang. COVID-19 masuk di Indonesia pertama kali di Kota Depok, pada tanggal 2 Maret 2020. Penyebaran masif mengharuskan negara-negara terindikasi memberlakukan kebijakan ketat. Kebijakan yang diberlakukan Indonesia adalah Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB). Dinyatakan sebagai zona merah, Kota Depok melalui Keputusan Gubernur Jawa Barat No.443/Kep.221-Hukham/2020 menetapkan pemberlakuan PSBB dimulai tanggal 15 April 2020.

Tujuan. untuk mengindentifikasi dan menganalisa pelaksanaan kebijakan PSBB di Kota Depok serta merumuskan rekomendasi strategis kebijakan pelaksanaan PSBB

Metode.Menggunakan media content analysis sebagai metode pengumpulan data kebijakan PSBB di Kota Depok, kemudianmenganalisisnya menggunakan pendekatan segitiga kebijakan dan teknik analisis SWOT

Hasil. Terdapat 23 Kebijakan Pemerintah Kota dalam menanggulangi COVID-19 di Kota Depok. enam Diantaranya terkait pelaksanaan PSBB dan duaperaturan terkait sanksi bagi pelanggar PSBB. PSBB diaplikasikan dalam empat tahapan perpanjangan dan satu tahap lanjutan menuju PSBB Proporsional.

Kesimpulan. Tahap perpanjangan Kebijakan PSBB berhasil mengubah status Kota Depok menjadi zona kuning dengan nilai Rt = 0,54 pada tanggal 8 Juni 2020 sehingga siap melaksanakan PSBB Proporsional.


ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 entered Indonesia first in Depok City on 2ndMarch 2020. Massive spread requires infected countries to enact strict policies. The policy chosen by Indonesia is a Large-Scale Social Restrictions Policy (PSBB). Declared as a red zone, Depok City, through the West Java Governor Decree No.443/2020, stipulates the implementation of PSBB on 15th April 2020.

Objective. to identify and analyze the implementation of PSBB policies in Depok City and formulate strategic recommendations for PSBB implementation policies

Method.The method used media content analysis to collect PSBB policy data in Depok City, then analyzing it using a policy triangle approach and SWOT analysis techniques.

Results.There are 23 Local Government Policies to tackle COVID-19 in Depok City. Six of them implemented the PSBB and two regulations relating to the sanction for PSBB violators. The PSBB was applied in 4 stages of extension and 1 stage to continue the Proportional PSBB.

Conclusion.The extension stages of PSBB policy have successfully changed to be the yellow zone with Rt = 0,54 on 8th June 2020. Therefore, Depok City is ready to implement Proportional PSBB.

Keywords

COVID-19, Kebijakan PSBB, Analisis Kebijakan

Full Text:

PDF

References

Subdit Penyakit Infeksi Emerging, Dit. Surkarkes, Ditjen P2P. Materi Pelatihan Relawan Covid-19 area Jabodetabek. Ja-karta: 2020.

Report Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020.

World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on 05th March 2020.

WHO. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. 2020 Jun (2020 Juni 21). Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it.

Situation Report–152 by WHO from na-tional authorities by 10:00 CEST on 20th June 2020.

Laporan Gugus Tugas Percepatan Pe-nanganan Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Depok. Informasi Perkembangan Covid-19 Kota Depok. 2020 June 16.

BeritaSatu. Depok Jadi Zona Merah, Kasus Covid-19 Tersebar di 56 Kelurahan [Video YouTube]. Available from: https://youtu.be/P2IfAtddZyI, 2020 June 17.

Jin Hun S, Kang Ji H, Cho MG, Lee SY, and Kang HJ. 2020. Current strategies for the control of COVID-19 in South Korea: Research Article. Korea Selatan: Depart-ment of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Korea.

Siedner M, Harling G, Reynolds Z, Gilbert R, Atheendar S, Venkataramani, and Al-exander C. 2020. Social Distancing to Slow the U.S. COVID-19 Epidemic: Inter-rupted Time-Series Analysis. USA: Medi-cal Practice Evaluation Center Massachu-setts General Hospital.

Viner RM, Russell SJ, Croker H, Packer J, Ward J, Claire S, Mytton O, Bonell C, and Booy R. 2020. School Closure and Man-agement Practices During Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review.

Kong Siu C, Chan TW, Huang R, Cheah HM. 2014. A review of e-Learning policy in school education in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Beijing: implications to future policy planning. Journal Computer-ize Education.

CNBCIndonesia.com. Besok PSBB Berla-ku di Jakarta, Ini Lockdown. [09th April 2020]. Available from: https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20200409183032-4-150989/besok-psbb-berlaku-di-jakarta-ini-lockdown-bukan-sih. 2020 21st June.

Müller O, Guangyu, Jahn A, dan Razum O. 2020. COVID-19 Control: Can Germa-ny Learn from China? International Jour-nal Health Policy and Management. Ger-many: Kerman University of Medical Sci-ences.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No-mor 6 Tahun 2018 Tentang Kekarantinaan Kesehatan.

Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor. 21/2020 Penetapan PSBB oleh Presiden RI.

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 9 Tahun 2020, Tentang Pedoman Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar Dalam Rangka Percepatan Penanganan Covid-19.

Keputusan Gubernur Jawa Barat Nomor 443/Kep.221-Hukham/2020 Tahun 2020 Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar di Daerah Kabupate Bogor, Daerah Kota Bogor, Daerah Kota Depok, Daerah Kabupaten Bekasi, dan Daerah Kota Bekasi dalam Rangka Percepatan Pe-nanganan Covid-19.

KOMPASTV. 2020. Belum Aman, Ini Dia Beberapa Wilayah Jabar yang Harus Per-panjang PSBB (Video Youtube]. Available from: https://youtu.be/Ny0dOWB2rrI. 2020 June 14.

Kompas.com. Belum Sanggup Redam Penularan Covid-19, PSBB di Depok Dinilai Butuh Perbaikan Serius. [2020, 5 Mei]. Available from: https://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2020/05/05/14062231/belum-sanggup-redam-penularan-covid-19-psbb-di-depok-dinilai-butuh. 2020 June 17.

CNNIndonesia.com. Pemkot Depok Revisi Perwal, Beri Sanksi Pelanggar PSBB. Available from: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200506175023-20-500832/pemkot-depok-revisi-perwal-beri-sanksi-pelanggar-psbb. 2020 June 26.

Depok.pikiran-rakyat. Lembaga Riset Kritisi PSBB di Depok Lemah, Berikut Tiga Catatan Penting untuk Wali Kota. Available from: https://depok.pikiran-rakyat.com/lokal-depok/pr-09377260/lembaga-riset-kritisi-psbb-di-depok-lemah-berikut-tiga-catatan-penting-untuk-wali-kota. 2020 June 26.

Sindonews.com. Riset Urban Policy. Kebijakan Penanganan Corona di Kota Depok. Available from: https://daerah.sindonews.com/read/18369/701/riset-urban-policy-kebijakan-penanganan-corona-di-kota-depok-lemah-1588683959. 2020 June 26.

Raoofi A, Takian A, Sari AA, Olyaeemanesh A, Haghighi H, and Aarabi M. 2020. COVID-19 Pandemic and Comparative Health Policy Learning in Iran: Article Iran Medicine. Collaboration Study between Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; and Azad University (IR) in Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Wang Jia and Wang Zhifeng. 2020. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis of China’s Prevention and Control Strategy for the COVID-19 Epidemic. International Journal of Environment Reseacrh and Public Health. Beijing: Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing.

Saraisky, N. G. 2015. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process, Current Issues in Comparative Education.

Araújo Jr, J. L. C. de and Maciel Filho, R. 2001. ‘Developing an operational framework for health policy analysis’, Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil.

WHO. 2018. The Politics of Policy Change in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Available from: https://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/publications/Alliance-HPA-Reader-web.pdf. 2020 21st June.

Walt G. 1994. Health Policy: An Introduction to Process and Power. London: Zed Books.

Walt G dan Gilson L. 1994. Reforming the health sector in developing countries: The central role of policy analysis. Health Policy and Planning. London: Zed Books.

Temesvari, N.A. 2018. Analisis Segitiga Kebijakan Kesehatan Dalam Pembentukan Peraturan Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara Dan Reformasi Birokrasi Republik Indonesia Nomor. 30 Tahun 2013 Tentang Jabatan Fungsional Perekam Medis Dan Angka Kreditnya. Indonesian of Health Information Management Journal.

Ayuningtyas. 2014. Kebijakan Kesehatan Prinsip dan Praktik (1es ed). Jakarta: Rajawali Perss.

Gurning, F. P. 2018. Dasar Administrasi & Kebijakan Kesehatan Masyarakat (M. Y. Pratama, ed.). Yogyakarta: K-Media.

Hajijah Sri. 2019. SKRIPSI: Analisis Im-plementasi Kebijakan Penurunan Stunting Di Desa Secanggang Kabupaten Langkat. Universitas Islam Negeri: USU.

LBH Jakarta. 2020. Kertas Posisi: Pe-nanganan Wabah Pandemi COVID-19 dan Penerapan PSBB di Jabodetabek Ha-rus Memperhatikan Hak Asasi Manusia dan Pemenuhan Hak Warga. Jakarta.

BBC News Indonesia. Covid-19: Istilah R ‘angka reproduksi’ untuk memahami an-caman virus corona. Availble from: https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/majalah-52733733. 2020 June 29.

Fajar, M. 2020. ‘Estimation of COVID-19 reproductive number case of Indonesia (estimasi angka reproduksi novel corona-virus (COVID-19), ResearchGate, (March), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32287.92328.

Kompas.com. Wali Kota Depok Klaim Angka Reproduksi Covid-19 Menurun 2 Pekan Terakhir Halaman all. Available from: https://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2020/06/10/13265011/wali-kota-depok-klaim-angka-reproduksi-covid-19-menurun-2-pekan-terakhir?page=all. 2020 June 29.

Surat Edaran No.443/172/Huk/Disperindag, tentang Pengaturan Kegiatan Usaha Ritel, Grosir Maupun Eceran, Supermarket, Minimar-ket, dan Toko Swalayan.

Surat Edaran No.443/172/Huk/Dinkes ten-tang Gerakan Sosialisasi Penggunaan Masker.

Radardepok.com Depok Dinilai Kemen-kes, Hasilnya 2 Hari Lagi. Available from: https://www.radardepok.com/2020/04/psbb-depok-dinilai-kemenkes-hasilnya-2-hari-lagi//. 2020 June17.

Instagram Pemerintah Kota Depok [@pemkotdepok]. (2020, 24 Maret). Depok Bergerak (Video Instagram). Available from: https://www.instagram.com/pemkotdepok/?hl=id. 2020 June 21.

Kompas.com. Sebulan Tangani COVID-19 Gugus Tugas Tingkatkan Laboratorium un-tuk Uji Spesimen [2020, 24 April]. Available from: https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2020/04/14/17534471/sebulan-tangani-covid-19-gugus-tugas-tingkatkan-laboratorium-untuk-uji. 2020 June 20.

Suryani Dini. 2020. Peran Masyarakat Sipil dalam Mengahadapi COVID1-19: Pusat Penelitian Politik. LIPI.

Peraturan Gubernur Jawa Barat Nomor.4 Tahun 2020. Pedoman Pengenaan Sanksi Terhadap Pelanggaran Pelaksanaan Pem-batasan Sosial Berskala Besar dalam Penganggulangan COVID-19) di Daerah Kabupaten Bogor, Kota Bogor, Kota Depok, Kabupaten Bekasi dan Kota Bekasi.

Moralez AJR, Ospina JAC, Ocampo EG, et all., 2020. Internation Journal “Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Elsevier Public Health Emergency Journal. USA. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102608/ 2020 28th June

Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Gallego V, Escalera-Antezana JP, Mendez CA, Zam-brano LI, Franco-Paredes C, et al. COVID-19 in Latin America: The implications of the first confirmed case in Brazil. Travel Med Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020;101613 Feb 29 [cited 2020 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 32126292. 2020 28th June

Edbert Gani Suryahudaya. 2020. Transparansi, Kolaborasi, dan Resiliensi Kota di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19. CSIS Commentaries Indonesia DMRU-004. Availabel from : https://www.csis.or.id/publications/transparansi-kolaborasi-dan-resiliensi-kota-di-tengah-pandemi-covid-19 2020 Aug 07.

Ari Perdana. 2020. Lockdown in Philipina: in the Philippines: Some Early Lessons for Mitigating COVID-19. Journal of CSIS Commentaries DMRU-014. Availble from: https://www.csis.or.id/publications/karantina-wilayah-di-filipina-beberapa-pelajaran-awal-untuk-mitigasi-covid-19. 2020 07th August.

Koo JR, Cook AR, Park M, Sun Y, Sun H, Lim JT, et al. Interventions to mitigate ear-ly spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis [Inter-net]. 2020; Mar [cited 2020 Mar 24];0(0). Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1473309920301626.

Amelinda Bonita Leonard. 2020. Pentingnya Inovasi Kepemimpinan dan Civic Engagement di Daerah dalam Menghadapi COVID-19. Available from : https://www.csis.or.id/publications/pentingnya-inovasi-kepemimpinan-dan-civic-engagement-di-daerah-dalam-menghadapi-covid-19/ 2020 Aug 07.

Riyanti Djalante, Jonatan Lassa, Davin Setiamarga. 2020. Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science 6 (2020) 100091 on Journal ELSEVIER. Available from : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590061720300284 2020 07th August

Barany L J, Simanjuntak Indira, Widya D A, Damuri Y R. 2020. Bantuan Sosial Ekonomi di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19: Sudahkah Menjaring Sesuai Sasaran?. Journal of CSIS Commentaries ECON-002-ID. Available from : https://www.csis.or.id/publications/bantuan-sosial-ekonomi-di-tengah-pandemi-covid-19-sudahkah-menjaring-sesuai-sasaran 2020 Aug 07.

SAKERNAS. 2019. Badan Pusat Statistik.

Yaset C O, Rebellón S D A, Peñaloza R M. 2020. Effective Reproductive Number estimation for initial stage of COVID-19 pandemic in Latin American Countries. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : ELVISIER. Available from : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197122030285X 2020 07th August

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.