Studi Epidemiologi Deskriptif Talasemia

Dwi Sarwani Sri Rejeki, Nunung Nurhayati, Supriyanto Supriyanto, Elva Kartikasari

Abstract


Talasemia adalah penyakit kelainan darah akibat kekurangan atau penurunan produksi hemoglobin. Jumlah penderita talasemia di Yayasan Talasemia Indonesia cabang Banyumas terus meningkat. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik penderita talasemia di Yayasan Talasemia Indonesia cabang Banyumas tahun 2012. Penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian cross sectional ini dilakukan terhadap 64 sampel yang diambil dengan teknik proportionate stratified random sampling . Data dikumpulkan meliputi melalui wawancara terstruktur menggunakan kuesioner. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif univariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penderita talasemia rata-rata berusia 12,28 tahun, berjenis kelamin laki-laki (51,6%), sedang sekolah SD (40,6%), bukan angkatan kerja (92,2%), talasemia β-mayor (90,6%), tidak splenektomi (84,4%), jaminan kesehatan masyarakat (Jamkesmas) (73,4%), kadar feritin ≥ 2000 ng/mL (90,4%), kelasi deferioprone, vitamin C, dan deferioksamin (81,2%), tinggal di Kabupaten Banyumas (79,7%), trans-fusi darah di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD) Banyumas (95,3%), rata-rata terdiagnosis usia 3,7 tahun, usia rata-rata mulai transfusi darah adalah 3,78 tahun. Frekuensi transfusi darah 1 bulan 1 kali (87,5%), dan frekuensi terapi kelasi zat besi mengonsumsi vitamin C 30 kali dalam 1 bulan (95,3%).

Kata kunci: Hemoglobin, kelainan darah, talasemia

Abstract

Thalassaemia is blood disorder caused by deficiency or decrease in production/formation of hemoglobin. Number of thalassaemia patients in Yayasan Talasemia Indonesia (Indonesian Thalassemia Foundation) Banyumas branch countinue to increase. The research purpose is to describe the characteristics of thalassemia patients in YTI Banyumas. The research type is a quantitative approach with cross sectional research design. Sample of 64 people taken by proportionate stratified random sampling. Data collected includes characteristics of the respondents based on the variables of people, places, and time was obtained through interviews using a questionnaire. The univariate descriptive analysis were use to describe the characteristics of the respondents. The results showed that thala-ssaemia patients at YTI Banyumas have several characteristics: average age of 12,28 years, male (51,6%), elementary students (40,6%), the labor
force (92,2%), b-thalassemia major (90,6%), no splenectomy (84,4%), Jamkesmas (73,4%), ferritin levels ≥ 2000 ng/mL (90,4%), sailor deferio-prone, vitamin C, and deferioksamin (81,2%), live in Banyumas (79,7%), blood transfusions in hospitals Banyumas (95,3%), the average age of diagnosis of 3,7 years, the average age of starting a blood transfusion was 3,78 years. Once a month blood transfusion (87,5%), and the frequency of iron chelation therapy by consuming vitamin C 30 times in one month (95,3%).

Key words: Hemoglobin, blood disorder, thalassemia


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v7i3.61

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