Status Gizi Ibu dan Berat Badan Lahir Bayi

Khaula Karima, Endang Laksmining Achadi

Abstract


Berat badan lahir 2.500 gram yang hingga kini merupakan standar ukuran risiko morbiditas dan mortalitas bayi merupakan faktor risiko penting yang berdampak hingga usia dewasa. Saat ini, bayi dengan berat badan lahir di bawah 3.000 gram dihubungkan dengan risiko penyakit degeneratif pada usia dewasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan berat badan lahir dengan status gizi ibu meliputi berat badan prahamil, pertambahan berat badan selama kehamilan, dan kadar hemoglobin ibu pada trimester ketiga kehamilan. Penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain cross sectional ini menggunakan sumber data sekunder rekam medis Rumah Sakit Ibu dan Anak Budi Kemuliaan Jakarta. Analisis dilakukan secara bivariat dan multivariat menggunakan metode uji chi square dan korelasi regresi. Hasil studi menunjukkan hubungan yang bermakna antara berat badan prahamil dan pertambahan berat badan ibu selama kehamilan dengan berat badan lahir. Setelah dikontrol berbagai variabel lain, analisis regresi logistik ganda menemukan berat badan ibu prahamil, pertambahan berat badan selama kehamilan, usia ibu, dan urutan kelahiran merupakan faktor yang memengaruhi berat badan lahir. Berat badan prahamil ibu merupakan faktor yang paling berpengaruh terhadap berat badan lahir (odds ratio, OR = 6,64). Oleh sebab itu, ibu dengan status gizi prahamil kurang yang sedang merencanakan kehamilan perlu lebih diperhatikan.

Kata kunci: Berat badan lahir, kehamilan, mortalitas bayi, status gizi ibu

Abstract

The weight of 2.500 gram is still being used as the cut off point to predict the risk of baby’s morbidity and mortality. Recently birth weight of less than 3.000 gram is being rigorously assess as a risk factor for noncommunicable disease in adulthood. Therefore it is important to assess factors that are affecting the fetal growth and development. The objectives of this study is to determine the relationship between infant’s birth weight and mother’s nutritional status, i.e. pre-pregnancy weight, weight gain during pregnancy, and maternal haemoglobin level in the 3rd trimester as well as several other factors. The study design is cross sectional using secondary data from medical record of Budi Kemuliaan Hospital Jakarta. The result of chi square and correlation regression test shows there is significant relationship between prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy and birth weight. The multiple logistic regression test reveals that pre-pregnancy weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal age, and birth order are factors that are effecting birth weight significantly, with prepregnancy weight as the dominant factor (odds ratio, OR = 6,643). Therefore, it is imperative to give more attention to undernourished women who are planning their pregnancy. 

Key words: Birth weight, pregnancy, infant mortality, mother nutritional status


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v7i3.57

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