Analisis Risiko Pajanan PM2,5 di Udara Ambien Siang Hari terhadap Masyarakat di Kawasan Industri Semen

Randy Novirsa, Umar Fahmi Achmadi

Abstract


Salah satu dampak negatif industri pabrik semen terhadap kesehatan masyarakat adalah peningkatan risiko penyakit saluran pernapasan. Risiko tersebut banyak disebabkan oleh pajanan partikulat di udara, khususnya partikulat berukuran di bawah 2,5 mikron (PM2,5). Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis risiko pajanan PM2,5 di udara ambien siang hari pada masyarakat di kawasan industri semen. Risiko dihitung dengan metode Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan berdasarkan metode Louvar yang menghasilkan nilai Intake pajanan yang diterima individu per hari berdasarkan nilai konsentrasi pajanan, pola aktivitas individu, dan nilai antropometri. Konsentrasi PM2,5 di lingkungan diukur pada 10 titik dengan radius 500 meter antartitik dari pusat pabrik, sedangkan pola aktivitas dan nilai antropometri diukur dengan menggunakan kuesioner pada 92 responden dewasa di kawasan pabrik. Hasil perhitungan risiko yang diterima seumur hidup (lifetime) menunjukkan terdapat tiga area berisiko dengan nilai RQ > 1, yaitu Ring 2 (500 – 1.000 m), Ring 4 (1.500 – 2.000 m), dan Ring 5 (2.000 – 2.500 m). Daerah paling aman yang dapat dihuni oleh masyarakat di kawasan industri semen adalah di atas 2,5 km dari pusat industri dengan konsentrasi paling aman 0,028 mg/m3.

Kata kunci: Industri semen, infeksi saluran pernapasan, partikulat PM2,5

Abstract

One of the negative impacts of cement industry to public health is an increased risk of respiratory disease. These risks are caused by exposure to particulate matter in air, especially fine particulate matter which is smaller than 2,5 microns (PM2,5). This study aimed to analyze the risks of PM2,5 exposure in ambien air at noon on people around cement industry. Risk was calculated using Environmental Health Risk Analysis Method that generates value of individual exposure intake received per day. This value was generated based on the concentration of exposure, individual activity patterns, and anthropometric values. PM2,5 concentrations in the environment was measured at 10 points (Ring) from the center of plant with radius of 500 meters each point. The activity patterns and anthropometric values were measured using questionnaire to 92 adult respondents around the factory. The calculation of lifetime risk showed that there are three risked area: Ring 2 (500 – 1.000 m), Ring 4 (1.500 – 2.000 m), and Ring 5 (2.000 – 2.500 m). The safest area was over 2,5 kilometers from the center of the industry with the safest concentration was 0,028 mg/m3.

Keywords: Cement industry, respiratory disease, particulate PM2,5


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v7i4.52

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