Kepribadian Tipe A dan Risiko Hipertensi pada Orang Dewasa

Nancy Chitrayana, Benedicta Feby, Yunita Lauren, Marcella Erwina Rumawas, Valentinus Budi Kidarsa

Abstract


Hipertensi merupakan salah satu penyakit yang paling banyak terjadi di Jakarta. Ciri kepribadian tipe A, yaitu tampak selalu sibuk, terburu-buru, tidak sabar atau mudah marah, tampak pada beberapa pasien hipertensi. Penelitian potong lintang ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kepribadian tipe A dengan hipertensi. Sebanyak 64 responden, yang usia > 30 tahun dan tidak sedang dalam pengobatan dengan antihipertensi, dipilih secara konsekutif di antara pengunjung Puskesmas Kelurahan Joglo-II antara 30 April – 5 Mei 2012. Tekanan darah diukur sesuai dengan protokol standar. Informasi tentang kepribadian dan faktor-faktor risiko yang lain dikumpulkan dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Analisis statistik menggunakan prosedur generalized linear model. Ditetapkan batas kemaknaan 0,05. Dari 64 responden, 36 orang (56,3%) mempunyai kepribadian tipe A dan 22 orang (34,4%) menderita hipertensi. Hipertensi didapatkan pada 13 dari 36 responden (36,1%) dengan kepribadian tipe A dan 9 dari 28 responden (32,1%) tanpa kepribadian tersebut. Pada usia dan jenis kelamin yang disetarakan, risiko hipertensi lebih besar secara bermakna 1,3 kali pada responden dengan kepribadian tipe A dibandingkan dengan mereka dengan kepribadian tipe non-A (PR = 1,3; nilai p = 0,003). Penambahan faktor-faktor risiko hipertensi yang lain melemahkan asosiasi, tetapi tidak mengubah kemaknaan statistik (PR = 1,2; nilai p = 0,04). Identifikasi tipe kepribadian disarankan sebagai bagian dari pencegahan hipertensi.

Hypertension is one of the major diseases in Jakarta. The typical characteristics of type A personality include being busy, in hurry, impatient and irritable, were shown in some hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study examined the relationhip between type A personality and hypertension. Sixty-four respondents (age > 30 years and were not on antihypertensive medication), were consecutively selected among patients attending Joglo-II Primary Health Center, between April 30 – May 5, 2012. Blood pressures were measured according to the standard protocol. Information on personality and other risk factors of hypertension were colected using interview- based questionnaires. Analyses were done using the general linear model at the significant level of 5%. Of 64 respondents, 36 respondents (56.3%) had type A personality and 22 respondents (34.4%) had hypertension. Hypertension were diagnosed in 13 (36.1%) out of 36 respondents with type-A personality and 9 (32.1%) out of 28 respondents with non-A type personality. Adjusted for age and sex, the risk of hypertension was 1.3 significantly higher in respondents who were type A personality than in those who were not (PR = 1,3; p value = 0.003). Further adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension attenuated the association, but remained significant (PR = 1,2; p vallue = 0,04). Identification of personality type is advisable as part of the efforts for preventing hypertension. 


Keywords


hipertensi; kepribadian tipe A; orang dewasa; hypertension; type A personality; adult

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v8i8.408

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.