Faktor Lingkungan dan Perilaku Masyarakat Tentang Malaria di Kecamatan Kupang Timur Kabupaten Kupang

Karolus Ngambut, Oktafianus Sila

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan faktor lingkungan dan perilaku masyarakat tentang malaria di Kecamatan Kupang Timur Kabupaten Kupang. Dengan desain studi potong lintang, populasi penelitian adalah seluruh rumah tangga di Kecamatan Kupang Timur dengan metode simple random sampling dan diperoleh 185 rumah tangga yang dijadikan sampel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan prevalens malaria klinis adalah 108 (14,4%) pada satu tahun terakhir. Gambaran faktor lingkungan rumah penderita malaria yaitu dinding rumah terbuat dari bebak dan papan masing-masing 43,6% dan 7,9%. Selain itu, atap rumah terbuat dari alangalang atau daun lontar (21,1%). Sementara letak rumah dekat dengan breding places nyamuk anopheles, yaitu sawah dan lagoon sebanyak (84%). Gambaran perilaku masyarakat dalam mencegah menceggah malaria menunjukkan 5,7% masyarakat tidak melakukan apapun untuk melindungi diri dari gigitan nyamuk. Sebanyak 74,4% masyarakat kadang-kadang menggunakan kelambu. Dalam hal perilaku pencarian pengobatan, sebanyak 49% masyarakat menggunakan obat tradisional, membeli obat di warung terdekat dan ada yang tidak melakukan apapun. Selain itu, sebagian besar penderita mencari pertolongan kepada tenaga kesehatan setelah lebih dari empat hari mendapat gejala. Disimpulkan bahwa kondisi fisik rumah dan lingkungan sekitar rumah serta perilaku berisiko masyarakat merupakan faktor determinan penting terjadinya terjadi malaria di wilayah Kabupaten Kupang. Disarankan upaya preventif dengan perbaikan lingkungan rumah dan promotif untuk perubahan perilaku perlu di perhatikan secara serius.

The aims of this research was to identify the environment factors and the behavior factors related to the malaria in the. Using cross-sectional study design, the population was all households in the Kecamatan Kupang Timur Kabupaten Kupang. Used a simple random quota sampling method, the number of 185 households were as a respondents. The results showed the malaria prevalence was 108 (14.4%) in the past year. The environment a condition which were consists of the homes of people with malaria were made of bebak and boards 43.6% and 7.9% respectively. Besides that, the Roofs house were made of palm leaves (21.1%). The location of the respondent’s house was close to the breeding places which is rice fields and lagoon are 155 (84%). In terms of the community behavior in control malaria showed 5.7% of the community was not did anything to protect themselves from mosquito bites and 74.4% occasional community used mosquito nets have been distributed. Whereas in the case of treatment seeking behavior shows 49% people used a traditional medicine, bought drugs at a nearby shop and there was not do anything. In addition, most of the malaria suferer looked after the health care after more than four days have symptoms. We concluded that the physical and the environment factors as well as behavior is an important determinant factors of malaria in Kupang. Recommended preventive efforts with environmental improvements to the house and promotif for behavior change is important.


Keywords


Kabupaten Kupang; lingkungan; malaria; perilaku; Kupang district; environment; behavior

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v7i6.37

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