Entomological Index and Home Environment Contribution­ ­to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Mataram City, Indonesia

Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto, Nur Alvira Pascawati, Tri Wibawa, Roger Frutos, Sylvie Maguin, I Kadek Mulyawan, Ali Wardana


Indonesia is a member of Southeast Asia Regional Office (SEARO) ranked the first in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) problem based on incidence rate (IR) and case fatality rate (CFR). Several provinces in Indonesia experience an outbreak, one of which is the Mataram City in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Mataram City is an endemic area of DHF because the DHF cases are always found in three consecutive years with the number of cases that fluctuate and tend to increase. This study aimed to obtain factors that could be used to improve early warning systems in controlling DHF. This study used a case control design with a ratio of 1:1 to 180 house holds. The results showed that home environmental factors, such as no ceiling, indoor and outdoor temperature that had the potential for breeding places for mosquitoes, no wire net in ventilation, low lighting and high humidity, related to DHF transmission. Vector distibution with entomology index showed that the existence of larvae, eggs and mosquitoes played a role in dengue transmission. The dominant factors affecting the transmission of dengue in Mataram City are the condition of the ceiling and the existence of mosquito eggs in the house.


dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomolgy index, home enviroment, Mataram

Full Text:



 1. Brady OJ, Gething PW, Bhatt S, Messina JP, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Cathrina, Farlow, Andrew, Scoot, Thomas, Simon. Refining the global spatial limits of dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Jul 16];6(8):e1760. Available from: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001760

 2. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, Catrinen, Jhon, Anne, Osman, Monica, Dylan, Thomas, GR, Cameron, Thomas, Jeremy, Simon. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 16];496(7446):504–507. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/nature12060

 3. Sariwati. Seminar nasional: pengendalian penyakit tular vektor [Internet]. Yogyakarta; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 7]. Available from: http://kesmas-id.com/seminar-nasional-pengendalian-penyakit-tular-vektor-unriyo-2017/

 4. Dinas Kesehatan Kota Mataram. Profil Kesehatan Kota Mataram Tahun 2016.

 5. Khan Jehangie, Khan Inamullah, Ghaffar Abdul, Khalid Bushra. Epidemiological trends and risk factors associated with dengue disease in Pakistan (1980-2014): a systematic literature search and analysis. PMC Public Health. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Des 31];18:745. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003098/

 6. Masyeni S, Yohan B, Somia IKA, Myint KSA, Sasmono RT. Dengue infection in international travellers visiting Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Travel Medicine [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Mar 17];25(1): 1-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30113689

 7. Åström, Christofer Rocklöv, Joacim Hales, Simon Béguin A, Louis, Valerie Sauerborn R. Potential distribution of dengue fever under scenarios of climate change and economic development. Ecohealth [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Oct 7];9(4):448–454. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23408100

 8. Cromwell, Steven, Christoper, Anelies, William, Steven, Amy, Thomas. The relationship between entomological indicators of Aedes aegypti abundance and dengue virus unfection. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 7];11(3):e0005429. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005429#references

 9. Widiastuti D, Kesuma AP, Pramestuti N. Entomological index and transovarial transmission contribute to Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever outbreaks in Banjarnegara Regency. Spirakel. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Des 28];8(1):30–37. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313885627_Indeks_Entomologi_Dan_Transmisi_Transovari_Yang_Mendukung_Peningkatan_Kasus_Demam_Berdarah_Dengue_Di_Kabupaten_Banjarnegara

 10. Nadifah F, Farida Muhajir N, Arisandi D, D. Owa Lobo M. Identifikasi larva nyamuk pada tempat penampungan air di Padukuhan Dero Condong Catur Kabupaten Sleman. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Andalas. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Des 28]2017;10(2):172-178. Avaliable from: http://jurnal.fkm.unand.ac.id/index.php/jkma/article/view/203

 11. Pohan NR, Alvira N, Wati P, Nurhadi M. Gambaran kepadatan dan tempat potensial perkembangbiakan jentik Aedes sp. Di tempat-tempat umum wilayah kerja Puskesmas Umbulharjo 1 Kota Yogyakarta. Jurnal Formil (Forum Ilmiah) KesMas Respati [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Oct 7];1(2):109-120. Available from: http://formilkesmas.respati.ac.id/index.php/formil/article/view/25/15

 12. Astuti dan Elisabeth Deta Lustiyati. Hubungan kondisi lingkungan fisik terhadap tingkat kepadatan larva Aedes sp di Sekolah Dasar Kecamatan Bantul, DIY. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 2];9(3):216–225. Available from: http://www.jikm.unsri.ac.id/index.php/jikm/article/view/588

 13. Satoto TBT, Alvira N, Wibawa T, Diptyanusa A. Improvement to Early warning system the transmission of Dengue Fever through controlling potential factor in Public Elementary School at Yogyakarta. Kesmas National Public Healh Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Jul 8];11(4):178-184. Available from: http://journal.fkm.ui.ac.id/kesmas/article/view/1248

 14. Pascawati NA, Baskoro T, Satoto T, Wibawa T, Frutos R, Maguin S. Potential impact of climate change on dhf dynamics transmission in Mataram City. BALABA [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Des 28];15(1):49–60. Available from: http://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/blb/article/view/1510.

 15. Wanti, Yudhastuti R, Notobroto HB, Subekti S, Sila O, Ragu, Febi. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and house conditions in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Kesmas National Public Health Journal. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Des 28];13(4):176-181. Available from: http://journal.fkm.ui.ac.id/kesmas/article/view/2701

 16. Getachew D, Tekie H, Michael TG, Balkew M, Mesfin A. Breeding sites of Aedes aegypti: potential dengue vectors in Dire Dawa East Ethiopia. Interdisciplinary Perspectivas on Infectious Diseases. [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Des 31];706276:1-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576013/pdf/IPID2015-706276.pdf

 17. Viennet E, Scott, Craig, Williams, Helen, David. Public health responses to and challenges for the control of dengue transmission in high-income countries: case studies. PLOS Necgelted Tropical Diseases [Internet]. 2016 September 19 [cited 2019 Desember 28];10(9):e0004943. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004943.

 18. Dinas Kesehatan Kota Mataram. Laporan kasus DBD per tahun. Mataram; 2018.

 19. Ghozali. Analisis Multivariat Program. [Internet], Semarang: UNDIP; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 7]. Available from: https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&cluster=3931694798130587098

 20. Sopiyudin D. Statistika untuk kedokteran dan kesehatan. Jakarta: Salemba Medika; 2017. [cited 2018 Oct 7];1-181p. Available from: https://books.google.co.id/books?hl=id&lr=&id=Abh5OaO3qlMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&ots=SVXEOe65CU&sig=tMKrPMeBxMxkBjokr1CosY1nDt8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

 21. Iriani Y. Hubungan antara curah hujan dan peningkatan kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue anak di Kota Palembang. Sari Pediatri [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Desember 28];13(6):378–383. Available from: https://saripediatri.org/index.php/sari-pediatri/article/view/393

 22. CDC. Healthy housing reference manual. Atlanta: Department of Housing and Urban Development; 2017 [cited 2019 Desember 28]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/housing.htm.

 23. Day J. Mosquito oviposition behavior and vector control. Insects [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Jul 23];7(4):65. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869724

 24. Powell JR, Tabachnick WJ. History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti--a review. Memorias do Insituto Oswaldo Cruz [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 23];108 Suppl 1:11–17. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24473798

 25. Baskoro T, Satoto T, Diptyanusa A, Setiawan YD, Alvira N. Environmental factors of the home affect the density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). YARSI [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 23];25(1):41–51. Available from: http://academicjournal.yarsi.ac.id/index.php/jurnal-fk-yarsi/article/view/298

 26. Snyman, Florence, Victor, James, Tamara, Beth, Bryan, Hugh, Roly, Jenny, Grant. American Journal Tropical Medicine and Hygiene [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 28];92(6):1207–1213. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4458827/pdf/tropmed-92-1207.pdf

 27. Kampango A, Bragança M, Sousa B de, Charlwood JD. Netting barriers to prevent mosquito entry into houses in southern Mozambique: a pilot study. Malaria Journal [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 23];12(1):99. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23497325

 28. Baskoro T, Dwiputro AH, Risdwiyanto RN, Ulil A. Fadli, Alvira, Diptyanusa. Prediction model of dengue hemorrhagic fever transmission to enhance early warning system in Gergunung Village Klaten District Central Java. Journal of the Medical Science [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Des 28];51(3):258–269. Available from: https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/bik/article/view/42001

 29. Reinhold JM, Lazzari CR, Lahondere C. Effects of enviromental temperature on Aedes aegypti: A Review. Insects [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 31];9(4):158. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316560/

 30. Mohammed A, Chadee DD. Effects of different temperature regimens on the development of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Acta Tropical [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2019 Jul 23];119(1):38–43. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21549680

 31. Muturi EJ, Blackshear M, Montgomery A. Temperature and density-dependent effects of larval environment on Aedes aegypti competence for an alphavirus. Journal Vector Ecolocy [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Jul 23];37(1):154–61. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548549

 32. Costa EAP de A, Santos EM de M, Correia JC, Albuquerque CMR de. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae). Rev Bras Entomol [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Jul 23];54(3):488–93. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0085-56262010000300021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

 33. Nurdiana Hayu, Trixie Salwati RA. Kejadian Demam Berdarah Dengue berdasarkan Faktor lingkungan dan praktik pemberantasan sarang nyamuk di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Srondol, Kecamatan Banyumanik, Semarang. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia. [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Jul 23];6(1):57–66. Available from: http://id.portalgaruda.org/?ref=browse&mod=viewarticle&article=4657

 34. Sari E, Wahyuningsih NE, Murwani R. Hubungan lingkungan fisik rumah dengan kejadian Demam Berdarah Dengue di Semarang. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 23];5(1):609–618. Availabe from: ejournal3.undip.ac.id%2Findex.php%2Fjkm%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F19183%2F18212&usg=AOvVaw2uYoSlU62qiCmb34YGdf3g

 35. Wati Nur Alvira Pasca. Survei entomologi dan penentuan maya index di daerah endemis DBD di Dusun Krapyak Kulon Desa Panggungharjo Kecamatan Sewon Kabupaten Bantul DIY. Medica Respati [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 23];10(3):76–86. Available from: https://docplayer.info/39020922-Survei-entomologi-dan-penentuan-maya-index-di-daerah-endemis-dbd-di-dusun-krapyak-kulon-desa-panggungharjo-kecamatan-sewon-kabupaten-bantul-diy.html

 36. Astuti FD, Susanti A. Perbedaan indeks entomologi pemantauan jumantik dewasa dan jumantik anak di Dusun Mejing Kidul, Ambarketawang, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Jurnal Vektor Penyakit. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 23];11(1):33–42. Available from: http://ejournal.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/vektorp/article/view/6488

 37. Anthony MC, Cook ADB, Amul GGH, Sharma A. Health governance and dengue in Southeast Asia. NTS Report. [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 23];2:12-16. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301515438_Health_governance_and_dengue_in_Southeast_Asia

 38. Bhat MA, Krishnamoorthy K, Khan AB. Entomological Surveillance of Dengue Vectors in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal Entomology Zoology Studies. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Jul 23];2(6):158–64. Available from: https://www.entomoljournal.com%2Fvol2Issue6%2Fpdf%2F58.1.pdf&usg=AOvVaw24jBzL0QHNvoVDUStsNxv0

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v15i1.3294


  • There are currently no refbacks.