Effect of Education through WhatsApp Media in Changing of Smoking Behavior among Senior High School Students

Yusriani Yusriani, Joel Rey U. Acob


Teenagers, who are considerably susceptible to smoking, must be educated to prevent smoking behavior that can cause health problems and even death. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of education through social media such as WhatsApp in the modification of smoking behaviors among senior high school students in Pangkep District, Indonesia. It employed a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest-only control group design. The experimental group received education in the use of WhatsApp social media, while the control group was provided with leaflets. Data were collected through observation and interviews with a total of 180 students in both groups, with 90 students in each. Data analysis used a paired sample t-test and an independent sample t-test. The study suggested that disseminating health information through WhatsApp media about the dangers of teenage smoking was more effective than leaflets in changing student behavior.


behavior, leaflets, smoking, students, WhatsApp


 1. World Health Organization, Orientation Programme for Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers: Handout, New Module; Topics at Glance. WHO, 2015. Available from: https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/pdfs/9241591269_op_handout.pdf.

 2. Kusumawardani N, Suhardi S. Behavior health risk among adolescents: a school-based health survey with the focus on smoking in male adolescents aged 12-15 In depok, West Java, Indonesia. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan. 2011; 14 (4): 332–340. Available from:

 3. Wantland DJ, Portillo CJ, Holzemer WL, Slaughter R, McGhee EM. The effectiveness of web-based vs. non-web-based interventions: a meta-analysis of behavioral change outcomes. J Med Internet Res. 2004; 6 (4) :e40. Available from: doi:10.2196/jmir.6.4.e40.

 4. Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia, Data and information Center. t.t. Adolescent Reproductive Health Situation. 2017. Available from: https://pusdatin.kemkes.go.id/article/view/15090700003/situasi-kesehatan-reproduksi-remaja.html.

 5. Balitbangkes, Agency for Health Research and Development on Cigarettes and Health. 2016. Available from: http://www.litbang.kemkes.go.id.

 6. Agency, C.S., Pangkep Regency Population Data 2017. 2017. Available from: http://www.pangkepkab.go.id/index.php/profil/demografi.

 7. Aril, B.S.R., Quantitative Research Methodology. Mold I, 2017. Available from: http://www.yanchukvladimir.com/docs/Library/Sage%20Encyclopedia%20of%20Qualitative%20Research%20Methods-%202008.pdf.

 8. Saryono, Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodology in the Field of Health. 2013. Available from: https://www.tokopedia.com/pustakahidayah/metodologi-penelitian-kualitatif-dan-kuantitatif-dr-saryono.

 9. Ambarwati A, Umaroh AK, Kurniawati F, Kuswandari TD, Darojah S. Media Leaflet, Video Dan Pengetahuan Siswa Sd Tentang Bahaya Merokok (Studi Pada Siswa Sdn 78 Sabrang Lor Mojosongo Surakarta). KEMAS: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2014; 10 (1): 7–13. Available from: http://id.portalgaruda.org/index.php?ref=browse&mod=viewarticle&article=261799.

 10. Ristin, E., Effectiveness of health promotion with leaflet and video media on adolescent knowledge. 2016. Available from: http://repositori.usu.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/735/147032119.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

 11. Ma, S., Effect of adolescent smoking prevention programs: influence of smoking prevention programs among public high school students in the city of Paranaque, Fhilipinja Soulivanh. 2010: National Public Health Institute, Japan. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwiamtmnsvrnAhVMfSsKHcfHB5MQFjAAegQIARAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Firis.wpro.who.int%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10665.1%2F13140%2FRS_2015_GE_23_PHL_eng.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1SWkCylB9cqS32EgXSNhZf.

 12. Andrian, L., Effect of mass media, family, and friends on youth smoking behavior in Yogyakarta. Makara Hubs-Asia. 2014; 18 (1): 41–52. Available from: DOI: 10.7454/mssh.v18il.3460. 2014.

 13. R, K., Factors Associated with smoking behavior at home in Jorong Ganting Ateh Nagari Tantung Alam Community. STIKES Prima Nusantara Health Journal Bukit Tinggi. 2014; 6. Available from: http://id.portalgaruda.org/?ref=browse&mod=viewarticle&article=495965.

 14. Jennifer C. Duke, Kevin C. Davis, Robert L. Alexander, Anna J. MacMonegle, Jami L. Fraze, Robert M. Rodes, Diane M. Beistle, Impact of a U.S. antismoking national media campaign on beliefs, cognitions and quit intentions. Health Education Research. 2015; 30 (3): 466–483. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyv017.

 15. Kaplan, A.M.M.H., Users of The World, unite! “Challenges and opportunities of Social Media.” Business Horizons 53. 2010; 1: 59–68. Available from: http://openaccess.bilgi.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11411/1490/Collaborative%20approaches%20to%20heritage%20museums%20on%20web%202.0%20platforms.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

 16. Yoo W, C.D., Park K., The effects of SNS communication: How to express and accept MERS-preventive behavioral intentions in South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior. 2016; 62: 34–43. Available from: doi: 10.1016 / j.chb.2016.03.058.

 17. JE, C., Antismoking campaign videos on YouTube and audience response: Application of social media assessment metrics. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015; 51: 114–121. Available from: doi: 10.1016 / j.chb.2015.04.061.

 18. Cunningham JA, S.P., Implications of the fallacy in young adult smokers aged 19–24 years. American Journal of Public Health. 2017; 97 (8): 1399–1400. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1931445/.

 19. De Viron S, S.L., Brand A, Van Oyen H, Communicating genetics and smoking through social media. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2013; 15 (9): 198. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785980/.

 20. Depue JB, S.B., Betzner AE, Walsh BM, Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2015; 29 (4): 259–261. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.4278/ajhp.130214-ARB-69.

 21. I, A., From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckman J, editors. Action-control: From cognition to behavior. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer; 2015. pp. 11–39. Available from: https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783642697487.

 22. Ajzen I, F.M., Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2010. Available from: https://www.worldcat.org/title/understanding-attitudes-and-predicting-social-behavior/oclc/699599135?referer=di&ht=edition.

 23. A, B., Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology. 2011; 3 (3): 265–299. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532785XMEP0303_03.

 24. Bernhard U, D.M., Vowe G, Do presumed online media effects have influence on online activities of politicians? Policy & Internet. . 2015. 8(1): p. 72–90. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/poi3.108.

 25. Yusriani, Yusriani, and Muhammad Khidri Alwi. “Buku ajar promosi kesehatan dan pemberdayaan masyarakat.” (2018): 1–59. Available from: https://forikes-ejournal.com/index.php/index/index.

 26. Murphy-Hoefer R, H.A., Rivard C, The influence of tobacco countmarking ads on college students’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Journal of American College Health. 2010; 58 (4): 373–381. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20159761.

 27. Paek HJ, G.A., McLeod DM, Hove T, How adolescents’ perceived influence media on peers affects smoking decisions. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 2011; 45 (1): 123–126. Available from: http://www.mariskakret.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Kret_Springer_2010.pdf.

 28. Yusriani, Yusriani., Effective audio visual aids change the behavior of elementary school students in maintaining dental. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. 2019; 10 (3): 584–588. Available from: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijphrd&volume=10&issue=3&article=119.

 29. Shmueli D, P.J., Glantz SA, The effect of smoking is a randomized controlled study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2010; 38 (4): 351–358. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307802.

 30. J, P., Participating in health issue-specific social networking sites to quit smoking: How does social interconnection influence smoking cessation self-efficacy? Journal of Communication. 2013; 63: 933–952. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcom.12054.

 31. Yusriani, Muh. Khidri Alwi, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho. The effect of training on efforts to reduce maternal mortality risk to behavior of community-based safe motherhood promoters (SMPs). Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. 2018; 9 (11): 398–404. Available from: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijphrd&volume=9&issue=11&article=064.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v15i3.3270


  • There are currently no refbacks.