Determinan Kematian Neonatal Dini di RSUD Dr. Achmad Mochtar Bukittinggi

Efriza Efriza

Abstract


Berdasarkan data SDKI 2002-2003 angka kematian neonatal di Indonesia adalah 20 per 1000 kelahiran hidup. Sebagian besar kematian neonatal terjadi pada saat neonatal dini ketika bayi berumur 0-7 hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi kematian neonatal dini
di RSUD Dr. Achmad Mochtar Bukittinggi tahun 2001-2005. Penelitian yang dilakukan pada sumber data sekunder rekam medik ibu dan bayi ini menggunakan disain studi kasus kontrol. Sampel dihitung dengan rumus ukursan sampel minimal kasus kontrol. Kasus. adalah bayi yang lahir hidup dan meninggal pada periode neonatal dini (0-7 hari) dan kontrol adalah bayi yang lahir hidup dan bertahan hidup pada periode neonatal dini. Jumlah kasus (93i) dan kontrol (392) ditentukan dengan rasio 1:4 untuk meningkatkan power penelitian Metoda analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kejadian kematian neonatal dini dipengaruhi oleh umur kehamilan, nilai apgar 1 menit setelah lahir, nilai apgar 5 menit setelah lahir dan berat lahir setelah dikontrol oleh variabel komplikasi kehamilan atau persalinan, rujukan, kelas perawatan, jenis persalinan, pendidikan ibu dan paritas. Bayi berat lahir sangat rendah (<1500 gram) berisiko untuk mati pada periode neonatal dini 59 kali lebih besar daripada bayi berat lahir normal. Sedangkan bayi berat
lahir rendah (<2500 gram) berisiko mati pada periode neonatal dini 6 kali lebih besar daripada bayi berat lahir normal (³ 2500 gram). Antisipasi kematian neonatal dini perlu penanganan sejak kehamilan (ANC) sampai persalinan. Kerjasama pusat pelayanan dasar dengan pusat pelayanan ditingkat atas,
persalinan di rumah sakit didampingi oleh dokter anak, pengkajian alat, tenaga, standar pelayanan dan mengoperasikan NICU (Neonatal Intensif Care Unit).

Kata kunci : Kematian neonatal dini, faktor risiko

Abstract

The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (SDKI) 2002-2003 reported neonatal death rate in Indonesia of 20 per 1000 live birth. Most of the neonatal death occurred early, that is in the age of infant of 0-7 days. This study aimed at knowing factors influencing early nenonatal detah in Dr Achmad Mochtar
Hospital Bukittinggi in the year 2001-2005. The study used medical records of mother and infant as secondary data source and was designed as a casecontrol study. Cases were infants born alive and died during the early neonatal period (0-7 days), and controls were infants born and stay alive during that
period. Number of cases was 93 and control was 392 subjects was calculated on 1:4 ratio to increase the study power. Analysis method used was logistic regression analysis. The results show that early neonatal death was influenced by gestational age, Apgar score 1 minute after birth, Apgar score 5 minute
after birth and birth weight after controlled by pregnancy or delivery complication, referral, health care class, type of delivery, mother’s education, and parity variables. Infants with very low birth weight (<1500 grams) have 59 times greater risk of early neonatal death compared to those of normal birth weight. While those with low birth weight (<2500 grams) have 6 times greater risk compared to normal birth weight infants. To anticipate the occurrence of early neonatal death there is a need to intervene since pregnancy (through ANC) until delivery. There is also a need to foster the collaboration between different levels of health care facilities, delivery assistance by specialist in the hospital level, and to standardize health care process including Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) implementation.

Keywords : Early neonatal death, risk factors


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v2i3.264

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