Analisis Implementasi Kebijakan PKPS BBM Bidang Kesehatan

Adang Bachtiar, Dumilah Ayuningtyas, Riastuti Kusuma Wardani

Abstract


Tingginya harga minyak dunia mengakibatkan pemerintah Indonesia di bawah pimpinan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) harus mengurangi subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM). Hal ini berdampak pada kenaikan harga BBM sebanyak tiga kali yaitu pada Maret 2005 (kenaikan harga berkisar 60 persen), Oktober 2005 (sekitar 108 persen), dan Mei 2008 (sekitar 30 persen). Kebijakan ini dimaksudkan agar dana yang diperoleh dari pengurangan subsidi BBM dapat dipindahkan alokasinya untuk empat program utama bagi penduduk miskin dan tidak mampu. Program-program tersebut adalah Bantuan Langsung Tunai, Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS), pelayanan kesehatan gratis, dan infrastruktur desa. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menilai secara umum pelaksanaan
Program Kompensasi Pengurangan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (PKPS-BBM) pada periode 2005-2006. Sedangkan pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini melalui telaah dokumen dan wawancara. Adapun realisasi PKPS BBM di Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB), Kalimantan Timur (Kaltim), dan Kota Bogor dinilai belum optimal disebabkan perbedaan jumlah sasaran dan standar utilisasi antara masing-masing daerah dengan pusat mengingat perbedaan kondisi geografisnya. Meskipun demikian, masyarakat miskin cukup puas dengan program pelayanan kesehatan gratis walau pelaksanaan program tersebut belum sepenuhnya tepat sasaran dan masih dapat ditemukan sejumlah iuran yang harus dibayar masyarakat miskin.

Kata kunci : PKPS BBM, pelayanan kesehatan, subsidi BBM, NTB, Kalimantan Timur.

Abstract

Unavoidable raise of international fuel prices had forced Government of Indonesia under the leadership of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) to reduce fuel subsidies. These happened in March 2005 (fuel prices increased approximately 60 per cent), October 2005 (with 108 per cent rise in fuel prices), and May 2008 (which increased the fuel prices for around 30 per cent). The point of this policy is that the government has intention to re-allocate the funds from
reduced fuel subsidies to four main programs for poor people such as direct compensation (payment of 100,000 Indonesian Rupiah, or about US$10, to 15 million families, or one quarter of the population, through the state postal and banking system), school operational assistance, free health service, and rural infrastructure program. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Fuel Subsidy Reduction Compensation Program (Program Kompensasi Pengurangan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (PKPS-BBM)) during the period 2005-2006 in general. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used in this research through document analysis and in-depth interview. PKPS BBM program implementation in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Kalimantan Timur, and Bogor City are not yet optimal because of the dissimilarity on number of target and standard of utilisation in each region, considering differences in their geographical conditions. However, poor people are quite satisfied with free health services although the realization did not touch the target completely. Moreover, there still
exists expense charged to poor people.

Key words : PKPS BBM, health services, fuel subsidies, NTB, Kalimantan Timur.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.224

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