e-ISSN 2598-3849       print ISSN 2527-8878

Vol 4, No 2 (2019)

Analysis Of Risk for Class Shifting And Determinants of BPJS Kesehatan Membership Using Generalized Ordered Logit-Unconstrained Partial Proportional Odds Model

Siskarossa Ika Oktora, Ika Yuni Wulansari, Geri Yesa Ermawan

Abstract


Abstract

The main source of funding of BPJS Kesehatan comes from the different premium class in which the participant registered. The medical benefits among classes are equivalent, except inpatient facilities. But when the improvement health degree is not linear with the incurred costs, problem would arise. This study aims to analyze class shifting and determinants of BPJS Kesehatan mem- bership. Around 1.53 percent of participants access higher classes, while 5.62 percent access lower classes. Class III participants with inpatient status severity level 2 and 3, reaching 41% and 43%, respectively. In addition, 60% of non-PBI participants are Class II premium participants; most of them are male, productive age, and workers. This research using Generalized Ordered Log- it-Unconstrained Partial Proportional Odds Model concludes that participants who are married tend to choose higher premium class. Whereas productive age participants and a worker is in the lower premium class. The recommendation is the evaluation of membership based on class premium contributions considering potential participants (productive age and workers) who tend should be conducted in a lower class. Although mutual assistance is the principle of National Health Insurance, specific mechanisms should be established to examine the relation of age and health status to each participant regarding the difference in the registered class, besides their economic factors.

Abstrak

Pendanaan utama BPJS Kesehatan adalah iuran peserta yang besarnya tergantung dari kelas premi yang didaftarkan peser- ta. Manfaat medis setiap kelas adalah setara kecuali fasilitas ruang inap. Di sisi lain, hal ini dapat menimbulkan permasalahan ketika derajat kesehatan tidak linier dengan biaya yang seharusnya dikeluarkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat per- bedaan antara kelas premi saat peserta mengakses pelayanan kesehatan dengan kelas premi yang didaftarkan. Ditemukan 1,53 persen peserta mengakses kelas lebih tinggi dibanding kelas yang terdaftar, dan 5,62 persen peserta yang mengakses kelas lebih rendah dibanding kelas yang terdaftar. Berdasarkan tingkat keparahan saat menjalani rawat inap, diketahui bah- wa peserta kelas III dengan status rawat inap tingkat keparahan 3 (berat) dan 2 (sedang) masing-masing mencapai 41% dan 43%. Selain itu hampir 60 persen peserta yang membayar iuran sesuai dengan ketentuan yang ditetapkan (non PBI) adalah peserta iuran premi Kelas II yang sebagian besar merupakan peserta laki-laki, berusia produktif, dan berstatus sebagai pekerja. Hasil analisis dengan metode Generalized Ordered Logit-Unconstrained Partial Proportional Odds Model disimpulkan bahwa peserta berstatus kawin cenderung berada pada kelas premi yang lebih tinggi. Sedangkan peserta usia produktif serta peserta dengan status pekerja cenderung berada pada kelas premi yang lebih rendah. Rekomendasi yang diberikan adalah evaluasi kepesertaan berdasarkan iuran premi kelas dapat dilakukan kembali mengingat peserta potensial (usia produktif dan berstatus sebagai pekerja) cenderung berada pada kelas yang lebih rendah. Selain itu meskipun asas gotong royong menjadi prinsip pelaksanaan Program JKN, namun sebaiknya dapat dibuat mekanisme tertentu agar dapat dicermati terkait dengan faktor usia dan derajad kesehatan peserta terhadap perbedaan kelas premi peserta yang didaftarkan tanpa mengabaikan kemampuan ekonomi yang bersangkutan.


Keywords


BPJS premium class; class shifting; Generalized Ordered Logit-Unconstrained Partial Proportional Odds Model

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DOI: 10.7454/eki.v4i2.3390

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