Penemuan Kasus Infeksi Kusta Subklinis pada Anak melalui Deteksi Kadar Antibodi (IgM) anti PGL-1

Arif Sujagat, Fardhiasih Dwi Astuti, Eva Muslimawati Saputri, Annisa Sani, Agil Dwi Prasetya

Abstract


Abstrak
Kusta merupakan penyakit menular kronis yang disebabkan Mycobacterium leprae. Indonesia menempati peringkat ketiga penyumbang kasus kusta terbanyak di dunia pada tahun 2012 – 2014. Kota Surabaya merupakan daerah endemis kusta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk deteksi dini kusta subklinis berdasarkan pengukuran kadar antibodi (IgM) anti PGL-1 dan mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kusta subklinis pada anak di Kota Surabaya. Penelitian analitik menggunakan desain potong lintang pada bulan April - Mei 2015. Populasi dilakukan penelitian adalah keluarga yang memiliki anggota penderita kusta. Sampel dipilih dengan teknik simple random sampling dan sebanyak 30 kepala keluarga terpilih melalui rapid school and village survey pada bulan April - Mei 2015. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Spesimen diambil dari darah perifer di ujung jari menggunakan tabung kapiler dan kertas saring. Uji serologi di Laboratorium Leprosy Lembaga Penyakit Tropis Universitas Airlangga untuk mengetahui kadar antibodi spesifik kusta menggunakan metode ELISA. Hasil seropositif ditetapkan nilai ambang ≥ 245 u/ml menunjukkan kusta subklinis. Berdasarkan hasil uji serologi didapatkan delapan responden (26,7%) positif kusta subklinis. Hasil analisis dengan uji kai kuadrat menunjukkan riwayat kontak (nilai p = 0,034; RP = 4,500) dan lama kontak (nilai p = 0,028; RP = 5,182) merupakan faktor yang berhubungan dengan infeksi kusta subklinis pada anak. Pemeriksaan serologi kadar antibodi (IgM) anti PGL-1 digunakan dalam kegiatan skrining kusta subklinis.


Abstract

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Indonesia places the world’s third major leprosy case contributor. Surabaya City is a leprosy-endemic area. This study aimed to early detect subclinical leprosy based on measurement of anti-PGL-1 antibody levels (IgM) and to determine factors related to subclinical leprosy among children in Surabaya City. This study was analitic using cross-sectional design. The study population was families having leprosy sufferers. Samples were selected by simple random sampling technique and 30 family heads were selected by rapid school and village survey on April – May 2015. Data was collected by interview using questionnaire. Specimen was taken from peripheral blood of fingertip using capillary tube and filter paper method. Serological test was conducted in Airlangga University Leprosy Laboratory of Institute of Tropical Diseases to determine leprosy-specific antibody levels using ELISA method. Seropositive result as cut off point determined ≥ 245 u/ml showed subclinical leprosy. Results of serological test showed eight respondents (26.7%) were positive suffering subclinical leprosy. Results of analysis using chi-square test showed contact record (p value = 0.034; RP = 4.500) and duration of contact (p value = 0.028; RP = 5.182) were factors related to subclinical leprosy infection among children. Serological test of anti-PGL-1 antibody levels (IgM) was used in subclinical leprosy-screening activity.


Keywords


IgM; kusta subklinis; lama kontak; riwayat kontak



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v10i2.883

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