Permasalahan Lanjut Usia di Daerah Perdesaan Terpencil

Laurentius Aswin Pramono, Cornellesi Fanumbi

Abstract


Dalam kurun waktu 35 tahun sejak tahun 1990, jumlah lanjut usia (lansia) di Indonesia meningkat 414% dan akan berada pada peringkat kelima negara dengan lansia terbesar pada tahun 2025. Seperti umumnya di negara berkembang, lebih dari dua per tiga lansia hidup di wilayah perdesaan terpencil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan dan membahas berbagai masalah gangguan kesehatan, sosial budaya, pelayanan, dan program-program kesehatan lansia di Kepulauan Tanimbar Provinsi Maluku. Penelitian dengan metode kualitatif melalui observasi, partisipasi, dan wawancara terhadap 30 lansia di dua wilayah semiurban dan 6 wilayah perdesaan terpencil di kepulauan Tanimbar Provinsi Maluku pada bulan April-Juni 2010. Pengumpulan data, diskusi, dan wawancara dilakukan terhadap pemegang program lansia di dinas kesehatan dan puskesmas. Gangguan kesehatan yang banyak dialami lansia adalah artralgia genu, gastritis kronis, nyeri pinggang bawah, katarak, hipertensi, dan diabetes melitus. Masalah sosial budaya akibat urbanisasi membuat para lansia ting- gal sendiri tanpa perawatan anak atau cucu. Pelayanan kesehatan terlihat belum optimal, sarana/prasarana terbatas, aspek promosi kesehatan terabaikan, serta tenaga kesehatan yang memperhatikan kesehatan lansia masih kurang. Pos pelayanan terpadu (posyandu) lansia belum efektif, informasi minimal, kader belum optimal menunjang kebutuhan lansia. Ke de- pan, perlu memperkuat sistem pelayanan kesehatan lansia; peningkatan perhatian dan kemitraan dengan lembaga eksekutif dan legislatif; serta melakukan inovasi strategi pendidikan, pelayanan, dan penelitian di bidang kesehatan lansia di daerah terpencil dan perdesaan Indonesia.

Kata kunci: Kesehatan, lanjut usia, perdesaan

Abstract

Indonesia is a country with the highest increase numbers of elderly in the world. In the range 35 years since 1990, the increase number of the elder- ly will be 414% that will set Indonesia in the fifth rank of the highest elderly in the world by the year of 2025. In most developing countries on the world, more than two third elderly live in remote and rural area. The aim of this study is to descript and discuss statistic data, health, health services, and programs for elderly in remote and rural Indonesia represented by Tanimbar Islands Maluku Province. The study use qualitative method by observation, participation, and interview with 30 elderly from 2 semiurban and 6 rural area in remote, rural, new developing administration district, and outer is lands of Republic Indonesia, Tanimbar Islands, Maluku Province in April to June 2010. We also interview and discuss elderly problems with elderly section program in health department West-Southeast Maluku region and el- derly program personnel in public health center. From the study, we found major health problems of the elderly in Tanimbar are genus artralgia, chronic gastritis, lower back pain, cataract, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Social and culture problems are urbanization which make elderly living alone. Integrated service section for elderly aren’t effective, minimal infor- mation, and the human resources aren’t optimal enough to support elderly needs. In the future, we must strengthen our health services system for elderly; expands the concern and networking with executive and legislative board; do education, service, and research innovations and strategies in the field of elderly health in remote rural Indonesia.

Key words: Health, elderly, rural areas


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v6i5.85

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