Hipertensi dan Risiko Mild Cognitive Impairment pada Pasien Usia Lanjut

Kasmianto Abadi, Dian Wijayanti, Ellen A. Gunawan, Marcella Erwina Rumawas, Bambang Sutrisna

Abstract


Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) meningkatkan risiko penyakit Alzheimer. Tekanan darah tinggi sering didapatkan pada beberapa pasien usia lanjut yang menderita MCI. Penelitian potong lintang ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara hipertensi dan MCI pada lanjut usia (usia ≥ 60 tahun) yang dipilih secara konsekutif dari pengunjung Puskesmas Joglo-I pada 12-18 November 2012. Kuesioner Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) digunakan untuk skrining gangguan fungsi kognitif dan tekanan darah diukur dengan manual sfigmomanometer menurut prosedur standar. Analisis statistik menggunakan Generalized Linear Model. Dari 32 responden, rata-rata usia adalah 61 tahun dan sebanyak 53,1% responden adalah perempuan. Hipertensi ditemukan pada 21 orang (65,6%) dan MCI pada 21 orang (65,6%). MCI didapatkan pada 17 orang (81%) di antara 21 responden hipertensi, dan 4 orang (36%) di antara 11 responden nor- motensi. Terdapat hubungan statistik yang bermakna antara hipertensi dan MCI. Risiko mild cognitive impairment pada usia lanjut hipertensi adalah 2,2 kali lebih besar daripada mereka yang normotensi (PR = 2,2; nilai p = 0,01). Hubungan ini tetap bermakna setelah faktor usia, diabetes, dan stroke disetarakan (nilai p = 0,04). Menurunkan kasus hipertensi dapat menjadi suatu upaya mengurangi risiko MCI pada usia lanjut.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Some geriatric patients with MCI were often identified to have high blood pressures. This cross-sectional study aimed to know association between hypertension and MCI in geriatric patients (age ≥ 60 years), con- secutively selected among people attending Joglo-I Primary Health Center between November 12-18, 2012. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaires were administered to screen for cognitive impairment, blood pressures were measured using a manual sphygmomanometer according to the standard protocols. Analyzes were done using the Generalized Linear Model procedure of 32 participants (median age: 61 years; 53.1% women), 21 respondents (65.6%) had hypertension, and 21 others (65.6%) had MCI. MCI were identified in 17 persons (81%) out of 21 respondents with hypertension, and in 4 persons (36%) out of 11 respondents with normal blood pressure. Hypertension was significantly associated with MCI. The risk that older individuals diagnosed with hyper- tension had MCI was 2.2 over that of their counterpart with normal blood pressure (PR = 2.2; p value = 0.01). This association remained significant after adjustment for age, diabetes, and stroke (p value = 0.04). Reduced hypertension may be one strategy to lower the risk of cognitive impairment among older adults.


Keywords


hipertensi; mild cognitive impairment; usia lanjut; hypertension; geriatric

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v8i3.354

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.