Epidemiologi Diskriptif Penyakit Avian Flu di Lima Provinsi di Indonesia, 2005-2006

Ajeng Tias Endarti, Ratna Djuwita

Abstract


Jumlah kasus flu burung pada manusia meningkat sangat pesat. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran epidemiologi penyakit flu burung (Avian Influenza / AI) pada kejadian luar biasa di 5 provinsi Indonesia in 2005-2006. Studi ini mengunakan sumber data sekunder data surveilens, sub direktorat Surveilens, Depkes RI, pada periode Juli 2005-2006. Dari 28 kasus konfirmasi ditemukan banyak pada pria (57.1%). Sekitar 89.3% kasus memperlihatkan gejala demam tinggi (≥ 38°C), batuk dan masalah pernapasan dan sekitar 80% diantaranya meninggal dunia. Gejala tersebut mengindikasikan kerusakan jaringan paru-paru pada tubuh penderi- ta. Berdasarkan laporan hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium, terlihat bahwa 60.7% penderita mengalami penurunan kadar leukosit (leucopenia) dan 46.4% penurunan kadar trombosit (thrombocytopenia). Laju fatalitas kasus yang telah mendapat pengobatan Tamiflu mencapai 66.7%. Sekitar 53.6% mempunyai riwayat kontak den- gan ayam dan bebek. Banyak kasus terjadi pada kelompok dewasa (> 18 years) dengan frekuensi 57.1%. Sebaliknya, laju respon untuk kasus, terlihat sekitar 64, 3 % mengalami pengobatan yg terlambat. Rata-rata semua kasus konfirmasi di Indonesia pada July 2005 - February 2006 adalah 3.5 kasus /bulan. Kasus-kasus tersebut terjadi dalam wilayah yang mengalami KLB pada binatang ternak. Sampai 28 Februari, 2006, KLB telah ditemukan di lima provinsi yang meliputi: Lampung (10.72%), DKI Jakarta (32.14), Jawa Barat (39.29%), Banten (14.28%) and Jawa Tengah (3.57%). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kasus lebih sering ditemukan pada pria dewasa dan pada orang yang lebih terpapar dengan faktor risiko. Kasus-kasus tersebut menampilkan gejala demam tinggi, batuk, masalah-masalah pernapasan leukopenia and trombositopenia. Selain itu, angka dan keefektifan ditemukan rendah. Kasus-kasus tersebut terjadi terutama pada musim hujan dan pada wilayah yang sebelumnya mengalami KLB pada binatang seperti ayam dan bebek.

Kata kunci: Avian flu, epidemiologi diskriptif , kejadian luar biasa, Indonesia

Abstract

The number of Human Avian Influenza in Indonesia increasing tremendously. The research is intended to identify the epidemiological description of Avian Influenza’s (AI) outbreaks within five provinces in Indonesia in 2005-2006. The research conducted descriptively using AI surveillance data from July 2005 up until February 2006. The data gained from the Surveillance sub-directorate Ministry of Health of Indonesia. From 28 confirmed AI cases, many occurred to male (57.14%) since Approximately 89.29% of the cases showed symptom of high fever (≥ 38° C), cough and respiratory problems and 80 % of such cases resulted to deceased for the victim. The symptoms indicated that severe destruction of tissue (pneumonia) occurred in the victim body. Based on laboratory’s report, it shows 60.71% of leucope- nia and 46.43% of thrombocytopenia cases. The death rate for the cases that have Tamiflu treatment reached 66.67%. 53.57% of the case reveals the victims’ high interactions with chicken and duck as the risk factor (avian). Many cases occurred to adult (> 18 years) with a hit rate of 57.14%. On the other hand, the response rate for the cases shows that 64.29 show late treatment of the cases. The average of confirmed AI cases in Indonesia from July 2005 to February 2006 is 3.5 cases/months. The cases occurred within the area that has AI outbreak to the animal. Up until February 28, 2006, the AI outbreaks have been found within five provinces, they are: Lampung (10.72%), DKI Jakarta (32.14), West Java (39.29%), Banten (14.28%) and Central Java (3.57%). It can be concluded that the cases inflicted more to adult male and to those people who interact more with the risk factor. The cases reveal symptoms such as high fever, cough, respiratory problems, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Furthermore the cases response rates and Tamiflu effectively were low. The cases occurred mainly in rainy seasons and to the areas those priories have AI outbreaks to the animals such as chickens or ducks.

Key words: Avian flu, descriptive epidemiology , outbreak, Indonesia


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v1i1.325

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