Makanan Etnik Minahasa dan Kejadian Penyakit Jantung Koroner

Grace Debbie Kandou

Abstract


Penyakit jantung koroner yang menjadi kausa utama kematian di seluruh dunia merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di seluruh dunia, termasuk Indonesia dan Sulawesi Utara. Kebiasaan makan yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor budaya, adat istiadat, agama dan kepercayaan berperan penting dalam proses kejadian penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh kebiasaan makan etnik Minahasa terhadap kejadian penyakit jantung koro-ner. Penelitian di RSU Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou ini menggunakan disain studi kasus kontrol dengan ukuran sampel 128 kasus dan 128 kontrol. Data frekuensi makan dikumpulkan dengan Food Frequency Quationnaire (FFQ). Makanan etnik Minahasa ditentukan berdasarkan 41 jenis makanan yang dikompositkan. Asam lemak jenuh pada setiap jenis makanan etnik Minahasa umumnya mengandung ALJ dengan kisaran kadar 0,01-10,46% food per 100 gram.
Pengkomsumsi makanan Mihahasa dengan frekuensi makan ≥ 2 kali/ bulan berisiko PJK 4,43 kali lebih besar daripada pengkonsumsi ≤ 1 kali/ bulan setelah dikontrol dengan variabel daging babi hutan(OR=4,3 95%CI:1,66-11,05), kotey(OR=7,15 95%CI: 1,70-30,08), merokok (OR=2,76 95% CI: 1,36-5,61), usia(OR=1,96 95%CI: 1,36-2,83), jenis kelamin(OR=2,86 95%CI: 1,41-5,78) dan hipertensi (OR=5,86 95%CI: 2,94-11,66). Kebiasaan makan dengan freku-ensi sering berisiko 5,4 kali lebih besar untuk terkena PJK daripada yang mempunyai kebiasaan makan jarang setelah dikontrol variabel jenis kelamin, riwa-yat keluarga PJK dan diabetes.

Kata kunci: Kebiasaan makan, penyakit jantung koroner

Abstract

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in the world, including Indonesia and North Sulawesi province. There are many factors that has contribution to the development of CHD. Food habit that influenced by culture and religion is known as a risk factor. The objective of this study is to know the effect of food habit and food variety of Minahasan to the risk of CHD. The methodology used in this research was case control, with respondents drawn from the Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi province. The samples were consisted of 128 cases of CHD and 128 controls of noncoronary heart diseases. Eating frequencies were collected through a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Those who were eating “ babi putar ” (roasted pork) more than twice a month had potentially 4.43 times to develop CHD compare to those who were eating less than once a month con-trolled by consumption of “ babi hutan ” (wild boar) (OR=4,3 95% CI: 1,66-11,05), “ kotey/sa’ut ” (OR=7,15 95% CI: 1,70-30,08), smoking (OR=2,76 95% CI: 1,36-5,61), age (OR=1,96 95% CI: 1,36-2,83), gender (OR=2,86 95% CI: 1,41-5,78) and hypertension (OR=5,86 95% CI: 2,94-11,66). Those with food habit which include higher frequency of consumption of composite of “high risk” 41 Minahasan food items has 5.4 times higher risk to develop CHD compared to those
who has lower frequency, after controlled by gender, family history of CHD and Diabetes Mellitus.

Keywords: Food habit, coronary heart disease


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v4i1.200

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