Pengaruh Kemiskinan Keluarga pada Kejadian Pneumonia Balita di Indonesia

Rizanda Machmud

Abstract


Pneumonia merupakan penyakit infeksi saluran pernapasan akut yang menjadi kausa utama kematian balita. Di Indonesia, pada akhir tahun 2000, angka kematian balita akibat pneumonia diperkirakan 4,9/1000 balita. Faktor sosio-ekonomi berkontribusi besar terhadap penyakit saluran pernapasan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor sosio-ekonomi yang paling berpengaruh terhadap pneumonia pada balita. Penelitian dengan dengan disain krossek-sional ini menggunakan sumber data sekunder Benefit Evaluation Study (BES) II oleh Pusat Penelitian Kesehatan Universitas Indonesia bekerja sama dengan Proyek Intensifikasi Pemberantasan Penyakit Menular, Departemen Kesehatan. Sampel diambil berdasarkan multilevel statistical frameworkdari 7.170 ba-lita pada 10.900 rumah tangga di 27 kabupaten di tujuh provinsi. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah multilevel logistic regression. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa sosio-ekonomi rumah tangga berperan secara bermakna terhadap kejadian pneumonia balita. Rumah tangga miskin berisiko lebih besar
untuk terkena pneumonia. Pada keluarga miskin, risiko pneumonia yang lebih besar disebabkan oleh faktor kontekstual lingkungan yang buruk berupa pen-cemaran di dalam rumah yang dikontrol faktor komposisi status gizi (95% CI OR 4.05- 4.78). Kebijakan intervensi program P2ISPA disarankan lebih mengu-tamakan intervensi pada faktor kontekstual lingkungan buruk pencemaran dalam rumah tangga miskin.

Kata kunci: Pneumonia, sosio-ekonomi, balita

Abstract

Pneumonia is an acute respiratory tract infection disease that becomes a major cause of death among under five years old children. In Indonesia, in 2000, pneumonia specific cause of death rate among under five children is predicted to be 4.9/ 1000. The socio-economic factor has significant contribution to res-piratory tract infection. The objective of this study is to know the socioeconomic factor that affect pneumonia among under five children. The study uses cross sectional study design using secondary data of Benefit Evaluation Study (BES) II conducted by Centre for Health Research, University of Indonesia in collaboration with Intensification of Infectious Diseases Eradication Project, MOH-RI. The study sample is selected based on multilevel statistical framework from
7170 under five children in 10900 households within 27 districts in seven provinces. Analysis method used in this study is multilevel logistic regression. This study shows that the low level of socioeconomic status affect significantly the pneumonia occurrence among under five children. The risk of pneumonia among lower socioeconomic household is higher than that of the high socioeconomic household. It was found that the association was found for poor environmental factor including in-house hygienic condition after controlled by nutritional status. The pneumonia occurrence among under five children is more influenced by environmental factors than individual factors (compositional effect). It is suggested to prioritize intervention on environmental factors to eradicate respira-tory tract infection.

Keywords: Pneumonia, socio-economic, under five years old children


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v4i1.199

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