Kajian Keselamatan Kebakaran pada Lima Sekolah Dasar di DKI Jakarta

Fatma Lestari, Sandra Fikawati, Ahmad Syafiq, Anisa Sukmaningtias

Abstract


Kebakaran gedung di Indonesia merupakan masalah besar. Untuk mengkaji keselamatan kebakaran, telah dilakukan penelitian kualitatif di sekolah-sekolah dasar negeri (SDN) di Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota (DKI) Jakarta. Tiga SDN di Jakarta Selatan (SDN Pondok Labu 11 Pagi, SDN Pondok Labu 12
Pagi, dan SDN Pondok Labu 15 Pagi) dan 2 SDN di Jakarta Timur (SDN Kramat Jati 16 Pagi dan SDN Kramat Jati 18 Pagi) dipilih sebagai sampel secara purposif. Empat komponen keselamatan kebakaran yang diatur regulasi (sarana proteksi kebakaran, akses mobil pemadam kebakaran, sarana penyelamatan jiwa, dan Manajemen Keselamatan Kebakaran
Gedung (MKKG) dikaji secara kualitiatif dengan mewawancarai orangorang yang bertanggung jawab dan mengamati semua komponen keselamatan kebakaran. Ditemukan bahwa di semua SDN tidak ada sarana proteksi kebakaran seperti alat pemadam api ringan (APAR) dan hidran serta tidak ada sarana penyelamatan jiwa termasuk nomor telepon darurat, tempat
berhimpun sementara, lampu darurat, dan petunjuk arah keluar. Namun, ada 3 SDN (SDN Pondok Labu 11 Pagi, SDN Kramat Jati 16 Pagi, dan SDN Kramat Jati 18 Pagi) yang memiliki akes jalan mobil pemadam kebakaran ke sekolah, tetapi semua SDN hanya memiliki 2-4 pintu keluar. MKKG belum dilaksanakan di semua SDN. Disimpulkan bahwa keselamatan kebakaran di sekolah-sekolah dasar sangat buruk karena hampir semua komponen keselatan kebakaran belum diimplementasikan.

Kata kunci: Keselamatan kebakaran sekolah, keselamatan dan kesehatan sekolah, sekolah dasar

Abstract

Fire on building is a major problem in Indonesia. To assess fire safety, a qualitative research has been conducted in elementary schools in DKI Jakarta. Three state elementary schools (SDNs) in South Jakarta (i.e. SDN Pondok Labu 11 Pagi, SDN Pondok Labu 12 Pagi, and SDN Pondok Labu 15 Pagi) and two SDNs in East Jakarta (i.e. SDN Kramat Jati 16 Pagi and SDN Kramat Jati 18 Pagi) were selected purposively as samples. Four regulated
fire safety components (i.e. fire protection system, fire truck access, life safety system, and Building Fire Safety Management) were assessed qualitatively by interviewing responsible persons and observing all fire safety components. It was found that in all the SDNs there were no fire protection
system such as portable fire extinguisher and hydrant available and no life safety system has been implemented including emergency phone number, assembly point, emergency lamp, as well as safety signs. However, there were three SDNs (i.e. SDN Pondok Labu 11 Pagi, SDN Kramat Jati 16 Pagi, and SDN Kramat Jati 18 Pagi) had fire truck access to schools, but all SDNs had only 2 to 4 exit doors. In all SDNs, Building Fire Safety Management has not been implemented. It is concluded that the fire safety in elementary schools was very bad as almost all the four components of the fire safety have not been completely implemented.

Key words: School fire safety, school safety and health, elementary school


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v6i1.115

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