Metode Pendekatan Top-down dan Bottom-up: Strategi Marketing Penetapan Harga di Pelayanan Kesehatan

Muchtar Muchtar, Wahyu Sulistiadi

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Pendahuluan: Bauran marketing terdiri dari product, price, place dan promotion. Penetapan harga pada pelayanan kesehatan merupakan bauran penting yang dapat dilakukan melalui metode pendekatan top-down maupun bottom-up. Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah meninjau perbedaan antara metode pendekatan top-down dengan bottom-up pada penetapan harga pelayanan kesehatan. Metode: Tinjauan literatur ini dilakukan pada bulan Desember tahun 2018. Penelitian terkait dengan pendekatan top-down dengan bottom-up pada penetapan harga di bidang layanan kesehatan dicari dengan menggunakan kata kunci yang valid, termasuk top down approach, bottom-up approach dan costing melalui PubMed, Science Direct dan EBSCO. Hasil & Diskusi: Sebanyak 10 makalah dipilih untuk tinjauan literatur. Hasilnya didapatkan pendekatan top-down dilakukan apabila ingin melihat biaya dalam skala produk yang besar dan memperkirakan biaya pada jangka yang lebih panjang, pendekatan bottom-up dilakukan apabila ingin kita ingin menilai seberapa banyak variasi biaya yang diperlukan dalam aktivitas produksi. Pendekatan top-down akan menghasilkan varian biaya yang lebih merata dan tidak memiliki banyak varian, sedangkan bottom-up akan menghasilkan varian biaya yang bersifat individu dan sangat kompleks. Kesimpulan: Dengan memahami metode pendekatan top-down dan bottom-up dalam perhitungan biaya, maka administrator memiliki dasar yang kuat dalam penetapan harga, perhitungan margin keuntungan serta budgeting biaya marketing, serta strategi marketing yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan akses masyarakat terhadap layanan kesehatan, sehingga diversifikasi pendapatan dapat dilakukan dan rumah sakit dapat bertahan pada era JKN.

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. Pricing in health services is an important mix that can be done through the top-down and bottom-up approach. The purpose of this paper is to review the differences between the top-down and bottom-up approaches to pricing health services. Method: This literature review is conducted in December 2018. Research related to the top-down and bottom-up approaches to pricing health services is sought by using valid keywords, including top down approaches, bottom-up approaches and costing through PubMed, Science Direct and EBSCO. Results & Discussion: A total of 10 papers were selected for the literature review. The result is that a top-down approach is carried out if you want to see large product-scale costs and estimate costs in the longer term, a bottom-up approach is done if we want to assess how much variation in costs is needed in production activities. The top-down approach will produce cost variants that are more evenly distributed and do not have many variants, while bottom-up will produce cost variants that are individual and very complex. Conclusion: By understanding the method of top-down and bottom-up approach in calculating costs, the administrator has a strong basis in pricing, calculation of profit margins and marketing cost budgeting, and marketing strategies that can be done to increase public access to health services, so that income diversification can be done and hospitals can survive in the JKN era.


Keywords


Top down Approach; Bottom-Up Approach; cCosting

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/arsi.v5i1.2863

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